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Open access

V. Tytar, O. Nekrasova, A. Pupina, M. Pupins and O. Oskyrko

Abstract

The article describes the potential distribution area of B. bombina and fi gure out the signifi cant climatic factors of the species at a home range scale. Th is species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and on Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries, occurs in many protected areas, and is listed in many national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. We collected the occurrence records and a set of climatic variables including 19 factors from 10’ resolution historical (summarizing annual trends, seasonality and extreme conditions during 1961-1990) and projected data (2050) available at the CliMond database. As a result, under climate predictions for 2050 there may be a substantial north and north-west shift of optimal habitat. Under such a scenario B. bombina populations may suff er mostly in the east and south of Ukraine. Under the modelled scenario the species representation in protected areas throughout the home range should be considered, but especially in Ukraine.

Open access

Ya. Yu. Syrota, O. B. Greben, A. M. Poluda, O. M. Maleha, O. I. Lisitsyna and V. V. Kornyushin

Abstract

Thirty-eight Mallards were collected on the territory of Ukrainian Polissia to study the fauna of their gastro-intestinal helminths. Materials were collected in 1998-2000, 2014 and 2016 on the territory of Volyn and Chernihiv Regions. In total, 33 species of helminths were found. Th e prevalence of cestode infection was 78.9 %. We found 18 cestode species: Aploparaksis furcigera, Cloacotaenia megalops, Dicranotaenia coronula, Diorchis acuminatus, D. stefanskii, Fimbriaria fasciolaris, F. teresae, Microsomacanthus compressa, M. spiralibursata, M. paracompressa, M. paramicrosoma, M. parvula, M. hopkinsi, Platyscolex ciliata, Retinometra venusta, Sobolevicanthus aculeostyleticus, S. gracilis, S. stolli. Th e prevalence of trematode infection was 73.7 %. Th ere were 10 trematode species: Bilharziella polonica, Apatemon gracilis, Echinoparyphium aconitum, E. cinctum, Echinostoma revolutum group, Hypoderaeum conoideum, Notocotylus attenuatus, Parastrigea robusta, Prosthogonimus ovatus, P. cuneatus.Th e prevalence of nematode infection was 7.9 %. Th ere were four nematode species: Capillaria anatis, Capillariidae gen. sp., Eucoleus contorta, Tetrameres fi ssispina. Th e prevalence of an acanthocephalan Filicollis anatis was 18.4 %. Th e most common species of helminths were A. furcigera, B. polonica, A. gracilis, Echinostoma revolutum group, F. fasciolaris, H. conoideum. Th e helminth faunas of Mallards from the territory of Ukrainian Polissia and from the Black Sea Region of Ukraine were compared. Th e results of comparison demonstrated a high level of their qualitative similarity.

Open access

I. A. Akimov and Ya. R. Oksentyuk

Abstract

The ability of several acaridid species to colonize and feed in diff erent nutritional substrates, such as grain crops, oil seeds, damaged vegetables, mixed fodder, hay and straw from the mangers and litter of livestock keeping places, litter, ambrosia and dead bees from beehive bottoms, is investigated. Species-specifi c diff erences in indices of domination and occurrence, and of Sorensen and Jaccard coeffi cients of similarity of species compositions on diff erent substrates are related not only to the nutritional inequality of these substrates, but also to the mite ability to grind them and to absorb these substrates through intracellular, contact and cavitary digestion using certain hydrolytic enzymes.

Open access

E. P. Zhytova

Abstract

Parthenitae and cercariae of Plagiorchis. multiglandularis Semenov, 1927 are recorded in Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) for the fi rst time in Ukraine; their morphological characteristics are specifi ed. Diagnostic characters of P. multiglandularis parthenitae and cercariae found in Ukrainian Polissia are compared with those from other regions. To confi rm the validity of the species, a comparison of the morphometric data of this trematode larvae with the cercariae of Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) Braun, 1902, found in molluscs L. stagnalis, L. ralustris and L. corvuses, was performed. It was determined that P. multiglandularis cercariae diff er from those of P. elegans in size and position of the penetration glands.

Open access

E. Babaeian, D. J. Gwiazdowicz and A. Saboori

Abstract

A previously unknown male of Cilliba erlangensis (Hirschmann, Zirngiebl-Nicol, 1964) is described based on specimens from Northern Iran. Representatives of the species were found in soil, leaf-litter and moss or in galleries of bark beetles. Th e fi rst description of the male of Cilliba erlangensis and an updated identifi cation key to the known males of Cilliba are also presented.

Open access

V. Yu. Nazarenko and S. Yu. Morozov-Leonov

Abstract

The clonal structure of the populations of nine weevil species (family Curculionidae) from central Ukraine was analyzed. Clonal diversity varied extensively among studied species. Th e level of clonal variation of some species (Otiorhynchus ligustici, O. raucus, Liophloeus tessulatus) is high, within some other species (O. tristis, Tropiphorus micans) it is low. Th e constant heterozygosity of lot of genes has been demonstrated that it may be a proof of the hybrid origin of the studied weevil populations. Th e asymmetry of some obtained electrophoretic spectra was observed. Th is can be a consequence of their polyploid nature. Th e signifi cant interpopulation diff erentiation of most of the species studied was demonstrated.

Open access

Mani Manokari and Mahipal S. Shekhawat

Abstract

The present study reports an efficient in vitro propagation system for Turnera ulmifolia using nodal segments as explants. Turnera ulmifolia (Passifloraceae) is an important garden plant with multipotent medicinal values. Effective shoot proliferation was achieved on agar gelled MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962). The maximum number of shoots (8.3 ± 0.57) per initial explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 mM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.54 mM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The highest number of shoots (59.5 ± 2.10) proliferated on semi-solid MS medium (with agar) augmented with 2.22 mM of BAP and 2.32 mM of kinetin (Kin) along with 0.54 mM of NAA. Longer (4-5 cm) and healthy shoots were rooted (12.0 ± 0.10 roots per shoot) on half-strength MS medium fortified with 9.84 mM of indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). The in vitro regenerated plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse and transferred to the field. Significant developmental changes were observed in the foliar micromorphology of in vitro raised plantlets when these were transferred to the field. The stomatal index was gradually reduced (26.72 to 21.25) in the leaves from in vitro to field environments. But, vein-islets and veinlet terminations (13.4 and 7.6) were increased (39.7 and 18.4) respectively from in vitro to in vivo grown plants. Simple, unicellular, less frequent and underdeveloped trichomes were observed with the leaves of in vitro plants but fully developed trichomes recorded in the field transferred plants. The study could help in understanding the response and adaptation of tissue culture raised plantlets towards changed environmental conditions.

Open access

Milka Brdar-Jokanović, Branka Ljevnaić-Mašić, Dejana Džigurski, Anamarija Koren, Larisa Merkulov-Popadić, Ljiljana Nikolić and Dušan Adamović

Summary

The aim of this study was to examine weed flora occurring in an organic common mallow (Malva sylvestris L.), a newly established crop at the experimental field Bački Petrovac, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, during the growing season of 2014. The weed flora consisted of six species, with even a half being invasive for Vojvodina region (Sorghum halepense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium). The observed low floristic diversity may be related to unbalanced ecological conditions in a newly established crop, invasive species, comparatively low fertilization, allelopathic relations, and possibly robust habitus of the main crop. However, although the flora was low in diversity, both narrow and broadleaf species were represented, with the average infestation as high as 16 individuals per m2. In addition, since the recorded weeds flower from Mart to November, until the development of more efficient methods that are in compliance with the principles of organic agriculture, mechanical weeding should be performed at least three times during the growing season. To our knowledge, this is the first such report on organic common mallow in agro ecological conditions of Serbian province Vojvodina and represents the first step in establishing the adequate weed control measures.

Open access

Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany, Muhammad Arif, Mohamed Emam, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad A. Arain, Farman A. Siyal, Amlan Patra, Shaaban Saad Elnesr and Rifat Ullah Khan

Abstract

Most of the phosphorus (P) in feed ingredients is present as phytate, which is poorly available for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of different poultry species due to the lack of endogenous phytase. The supplementation of phytase increases the utilization of P by hydrolyzing phytate, which consequently may reduce the excretion of P in the environment. In addition, it has been suggested that phytase may improve the feed utilization, weight gain, egg production and egg traits, nutrient digestibility, energy availability, retention of important minerals in blood and bones. Thus, the effectiveness of phytase on performance and Ca and P absorption in layer chickens fed corn-soybean based diets has been well recognized. The current review briefly discusses the supplementation of phytase in the diet of poultry on performance and egg production and characteristics as well as amino acids and minerals availability.

Open access

Shafqat Nawaz Qaisrani, Ibrar Ahmed, Faheem Azam, Fehmida Bibi, Saima, Talat Naseer Pasha and Farooq Azam

Abstract

Threonine (Thr) is the third limiting essential amino acid after methionine and lysine in cornsoybean based diets of broilers. Dietary imbalance of Thr, therefore, results in a poor growth performance in broilers. This review summarizes literature data on the known effects of dietary levels of Thr on growth performance, gut morphology, immunity and carcass characteristics in broilers. Due to continuous improvement in genetic potential and management practices for poultry production, dietary Thr requirements are changing. A number of studies have shown that supplementation of Thr in broiler diet at a higher level than the current NRC recommendation (0.74-0.81%), increases body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and improves gut morphology, carcass quality and immune status, mainly by enhancing the functional capability of digestive system and immune organs (spleen, bursa, and thymus). According to the literature data discussed in this review, the minimal and maximal total dietary Thr levels for healthy birds reared in normal conditions were 0.67 and 0.90% for growth performance, 0.77 and 1.1% for a better gut health, 0.60 and 1.02% for immunity and 0.62 and 0.97% for better carcass characteristics. This background provides impetus to further investigate the exact level of Thr and its effects on growth performance, gut morphology, immunity and carcass characteristics in broilers.