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Open access

Davood Hashemabadi, Fatemeh Sabzevari, Behzad Kaviani and Mohammad Hossein Ansari

Abstract

The aim of the study was to replace mineral fertilizers with organic and biological fertilizers to improve nutrient uptake, plant growth and the concentrations of some important secondary metabolites in periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.). Periwinkle plants were grown under different rates of N supply (0, 20 and 40 mg kg−1 soil) and biological treatments (Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Azospirillum plus Azotobacter, Azospirillum plus fungal compost, Azotobacter plus fungal compost, and fungal compost). The concentrations of pigments and nutrients were measured by spectrophotometry and flame photometry. Secondary metabolites were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data were recorded for plant growth and development parameters, nutrient uptake and some secondary metabolites of periwinkle plants. The results showed that the N-fertilizer and biological treatments significantly improved most growth attributes and nutrient uptake and increased the concentrations of secondary metabolites as compared to the control. Maximum concentrations of root ajmalicine (0.54 mg g−1 DW), leaf vinblastine (0.96 mg g−1 DW) and root catharanthine (2.38 mg g−1 DW) were obtained from the treatment with Azospirillum under N-fertilizer at 20 and 40 mg kg−1 soil. Azotobacter along with fungal compost under N-fertilizer at 40 mg kg−1 soil induced the maximum concentration of leaf vindoline (1.94 mg g−1 DW). The highest concentration of root alkaloids (1.11 mg g−1 DW) was obtained from the treatment with compost under 40 mg N kg−1 soil. Azospirillum, Azotobacter and fungal compost combined with the N-fertilizer improved many morphological and nutrient characteristics. In conclusion, the growth and metabolism of C. roseus were significantly positively affected by the organic and biological fertilizers.

Open access

Ali Sharghi, Hassanali Naghdi Badi, Sahebali Bolandnazar, Ali Mehrafarin and Mohammad Reza Sarikhani

Abstract

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is a valuable medicinal plant, which is widely distributed throughout the world. It has been known that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have positive effects on the quality and quantity of medicinal plants under different soil water levels. For this reason, a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) to evaluate PGPR effects on the morphophysiological and phytochemical traits of fenugreek under different soil water levels. This study was conducted in two separate experiments: after the six-leaf stage and after the flowering stage. In the experiments, the treatments were plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) including the control, Sinorhizobium meliloti, Pseudomonas fluorescens, a combination of S. meliloti and P. fluorescens, and different soil water levels (i.e. 100, 80, 60 and 40% of field capacity (FC) in three replications. The results showed that the highest seed weight per plant was obtained by inoculation with the S. meliloti and P. fluorescens combination at 100% FC after the two developmental stages. The maximum concentrations of nicotinic acid and trigonelline were observed for the combination of S. meliloti and P. fluorescens at the soil water content of 40% FC after the six-leaf stage and for S. meliloti at the soil water content of 40% FC after the flowering stage. The correlation and stepwise regression analyses showed positive effects of PGPR application on the morphophysiological and phytochemical traits of fenugreek plants under different soil water levels.

Open access

Ekta Chaudhary, Prabhawati Tiwari and Prem Lal Uniyal

Abstract

Pollen grains vary widely in pollen shape, size, aperture type and exine sculpture among the taxa and within the taxon, which make them taxonomically important. They also contain several proteins, lipids and vitamins which are essential for the growth and developments of developing bee larvae. Quantification of these chemical constituents is important for the dietary purposes of honey bees. The present study deals with the morphology and chemical constituents of hand-collected pollen from four bee forage plants viz. Prunus cerasoides D.Don, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don and Rosa brunonii Lindl. from Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand. The family represents a homogenous group with a tricolporate pollen aperture type in all the studied taxa. Pollen shape varied from sub-prolate to prolate-spheroidal with a smaller pollen size observed in Pyrus pashia (26.53±0.30 µm polar view and 24.20±1.04 µm equatorial view) and a larger one in Prunus persica (38.39±3.06 µm polar view and 36.41±1.34 µm equatorial view). Exine sculpture was psilate to striato-reticulate. Maximum crude protein (68.33±0.14 mg/g) and starch content (32.98±0.67 mg/g) were recorded in pollen of Prunus cerasoides and maximum free amino acid (13.78±0.71 mg/g) in Pyrus pashia. All chemical constituents were found to be significant except the amino acids which were non-significant at the 0.05* level. Results showed that pollen grains of these Rosaceous members contained high amount of crude protein and phenolic content as a bee food source for brood, which makes this family economically important.

Open access

K. Apiwong, Ch. Wongsawad and P. Butboonchoo

Abstract

Cyprinoid fish in Chiang Mai province has been reported the presence of a large number of metacercariae, particularly the metacercariae of Haplorchoides and those not identified to species. This study aims to investigate morphological and molecular characteristic of the minute intestinal fluke H. mehrai metacercariae in two cyprinoid fish species from Chom Thong district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand: the Tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii) and the White eye barb (Cyclocheilichthys repasson). A total of 180 fish (90 from B. schwanenfeldii and 90 from C. repasson) were collected over three seasons: cool, hot and the rainy season (December 2015 to August 2016). Fish were examined for H. mehrai metacercariae infection, including areas such as muscle and the inner side of body scales, by using a light microscope. The prevalence of H. mehrai metacercariae in B. schwanenfeldii and C. repasson was 73.33 % and 100 % respectively. Haplorchoides metacercariae were identified as H. mehrai based on the morphological characteristics; the position of the acetabulum and the number and arrangement of the acetabular spines. Phylogenetic analysis based on Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene showed that H. mehrai metacercariae from B. schwanenfeldii and C. repasson were the same species as the adult stage of H. mehrai from Hemibagrus nemurus and Mystus multiradiatus. Both morphological and molecular characteristic could indicate that Haplorchoides metacercariae originated from this study were H. mehrai. Furthermore, it is a new record of the minute intestinal fluke Haplorchoides mehrai in Chiang Mai Province

Open access

Dylan Cleary, Allen L. Szalanski, Clinton Trammel, Mary-Kate Williams, Amber Tripodi and Danielle Downey

Abstract

A study was conducted on the mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity of feral colonies and swarms of Apis mellifera from ten counties in Utah by sequencing the intergenic region of the cytochrome oxidase (COI-COII) gene region. A total of 20 haplotypes were found from 174 honey bee colony samples collected from 2008 to 2017. Samples belonged to the A (African) (48%); C (Eastern Europe) (43%); M (Western Europe) (4%); and O (Oriental) lineages (5%). Ten African A lineage haplotypes were observed with two unique to Utah among A lineage haplotypes recorded in the US. Haplotypes belonging to the A lineage were observed from six Utah counties located in the southern portion of the State, from elevations as high as 1357 m. All five C lineage haplotypes that were found have been observed from queen breeders in the US. Three haplotypes of the M lineage (n=7) and two of the O lineage (n=9) were also observed. This study provides evidence that honey bees of African descent are both common and diverse in wild populations of honey bees in southern Utah. The high levels of genetic diversity of A lineage honey bee colonies in Utah provide evidence that the lineage may have been established in Utah before the introduction of A lineage honey bees from Brazil to Texas in 1990.

Open access

Li-Hui Lü and Qiang-Sheng Wu

Abstract

Replant disease refers to the result of monoculture-continuous repetitive planting of congeneric crops or coordinal crops in the same soil for many years. Such disease is recognized as one of the main limiting factors affecting plant growth and production of horticultural plants in many countries. As a result, replant disease in horticultural plants has become a world problem in agriculture and also a bottleneck restricting the sustainable development of agriculture. In general, replant disease results in unfavorable growth of horticultural plants, which is due to allelopathy, autotoxicity, and the imbalance of both soil physical-biochemical traits and soil microflora. An environmentally friendly contribution to this could be bio-controlled by beneficial microorganisms. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, one of soil-inhabiting fungi, can form a symbiotic association in roots to mitigate the negative effects of replant disease in many horticultural plants. Moreover, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi do not produce any environmental pollution in soils and are a potential biological control. The soil fungi could regulate better morphological, physiological and molecular levels in plants to respond to the disease. This review mainly outlined the current knowledge in mycorrhizal mitigation of replant disease in horticultural plants, which appears to be a promising strategy to improve growth of horticultural plants in replant soils.

Open access

Nicoleta Ion, Jean-François Odoux and Bernard E. Vaissière

Abstract

Intensive farming systems have led to reduced food availability for honey bees which could be related to their current decline. A global tool is needed in order to assess the melliferous potential of plant species that could be developed as crops or companion plants in such systems. This review is based upon a survey from an extensive dataset collected in Romania over the last sixty years to record the nectar production of 153 weedy species. While there was considerable variation among these plants, we found that the melliferous potential of such large families as the Brassicaceae was low, that of the Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae at an intermediate level, and that of the Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae the highest. High nectariferous potential was found to be an important feature of perennial ruderal species. Within the main flowering season, perennials provided much more nectar than annuals. These results could help to develop new agricultural practices more compatible with honey bee colony survival and honey production, as some of these plant species could provide a solution to enable agriculture and beekeeping to coexist in a sustainable way.

Open access

Benjamin Oyelami, Jonathan Akinwale and Ademola Ladele

Summary

Over the years, provision of extension and advisory services has been the main thrust of both the public and private extension services in Nigeria. Meanwhile, the lead farmer extension approach has been deployed for cost effectiveness, broader reach and sustainability. The utility value of this approach needs to be empirically established. This study therefore examined the extent to which the approach has achieved the intended objectives among randomly sampled maize farmers in Iseyin and Saki-West Local Government Areas (LGAs). Interview schedule and focus group discussion among farmer groups were used for the study. Lead farmer extension approach was cost and time effective vis-a-vis the number of farmers reached and the achieved outcome. Almost 70% of the lead farmers encountered late arrivals and impatience from group members during step-down training activities while all of them complained of insufficient funds for refreshment. About 65% of the farmers engaged in selective adoption of the training items owing to various reasons. There was also a significant difference between the knowledge level of the lead farmers and their respective group members while the group members’ assessment of their respective lead farmers’ performance was high. The study concluded that this extension approach was effective and could serve to complement the efforts of extension workers in the state.

Open access

Gorica Vuković, Vojislava Bursić, Tijana Stojanović, Aleksandra Petrović, Sonja Gvozdenac, Mira Starović, Slobodan Kuzmanović and Goran Aleksić

Summary

The undemanding LC-MS/MS method was developed for the synchronized analysis of atropine and scopolamine in maize crop. The dSPE was carried out with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water and a mixture of magnesium sulphate, sodium chloride and sodium citrate. The analytes were separated on a Zorbax XDB C18 column using methanol/water as the mobile phase in gradient mode. The detection was done using a tandem masss spectrometry (MS/MS) in the positive ESI. The tropane alkaloids exhibited excellent linearity in the range of 2-20 µg/kg with the LOQ of 5 µg/kg for maize. The extraction recoveries of atropine and scopolamine were 65.7 and 85.5% with the intraday RSDr 10.25 and 4.29%, respectively. The validated method was appled to real maze samples. One sample contained 18.8 µg/kg of atropine and 6.3 µg/kg of scopolamine.