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Open access

F. Zigo, M. Vasiľ, L. Takáč, M. Zigová and J. Elečko

Abstract

Relatively large parts of the Slovak territory are marginal regions, which in terms of the economy of ruminant rearing can effectively produce animal commodities only occasionally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and aetiology of mastitis during one milking season in two sheep dairy herds of 224 (A) and 270 (B) ewes situated in the marginal parts of Slovakia. A complex examination of health status of ewes based on: the clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of milk with the California mastitis test (CMT) and the bacteriological analysis of raw milk samples from individual halves were carried out at the beginning (April) and at the end (September) of the milking season. The prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in the herds of ewes (A and B) were 19.1 % and 14.3 %, respectively. In both herds we confirmed predominantly the subclinical forms of IMI. The highest percentages of aetiological agents were determined for coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), such as Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus piscifermentans and Staphylococcus intermedius, the occurrences of which were determined in 41 (48.2 %) and 37 (47.9 %) positive milk samples, respectively.

Open access

Gustavo A. Roa López, Jhon Jairo Suárez, Paola Barato and Noel Verján García

Abstract

Introduction: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a γ-herpesvirus associated with various neoplasms in humans and is a probable aetiological agent in breast cancer; however, a causal relationship has not yet been established. Because of the epidemiological and clinicopathological similarities between breast cancer and canine mammary tumours, dogs have been proposed as a valid model for breast cancer.

Material and Methods: A total of 47 canine mammary gland tumour tissues were processed by routine histopathological technique with haematoxylin-eosin staining and classified according to the type of neoplasm. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues and the EBNA-1 gene and the BamHI-W region specific for EBV were evaluated by nested PCR.

Results: The histopathological evaluation revealed 2 benign neoplasms, and many carcinomas: 2 in situ, 9 simple, 3 solid, 10 complex, and 21 mixed. One sample was positive for the EBNA-1 gene, while all were negative for the BamHI-W region.

Conclusion: No association was found between EBV and mammary tumours in dogs. However, here we report for the first time the presence of an EBV gene sequence in a canine mammary tumour. It is likely that detection of EBV might be affected by the quality and quantity of DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues. Additional studies are necessary to establish any association of EBV with mammary gland cancer in humans and in dogs, which could eventually lead to better public health prevention and control.

Open access

Teresa Kamińska-Gibas, Ilgiz Irnazarow, Joanna Szczygieł and Patrycja Jurecka

Abstract

Introduction: Genes related to iron metabolism play an important role in inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of ferritin, transferrin receptors 1a and 1b, and transferrin genes in the response to blood parasite infection in common carp (Cyprinuscarpio L.).

Material and Methods: Two genetically distinct carp groups were used: R3 carp, which are established as being sensitive to parasitic infection, and SA carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) of wild origin. An established challenge model with Trypanoplasma borreli was applied. Challenged carp were sampled to determine their expression levels of transferrin receptors 1a and 1b, ferritin, and transferrin mRNA. Mortality and serum iron concentration were also measured.

Results: The study revealed contrasting differences in the expression profiles of all key iron regulatory genes except the transferrin gene. In the case of other parameters, significant differences were also observed.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the level of parasitic infection depends on the blood iron status. This parameter was related to the origin of the fish.

Open access

Ge Bai, Hui Li, Yansong Ge, Qianzhen Zhang, Jiantao Zhang, Mingzi Chen, Tao Liu and Hongbin Wang

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) against liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined resection injury.

Material and Methods: Eighteen miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups: a sham operated group (sham group, laparoscopic liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined resection injury group (IRI group), and a hydrogen-rich saline intervention group (IRI + HRS group). Samples of hepatic tissue and serum were collected at the time of reperfusion and then 3 h, 1 d, and 3 d post reperfusion. Liver function, oxidative stress, autophagy-related mRNA genes, and protein expression were evaluated. Changes in cell and tissue ultrastructure were examined by transmission electron microscopy.

Results: Compared with the sham group, the level of autophagy of hepatocytes increased in the IRI and IRI + HRS groups, corresponding to high oxidative stress and severe liver function injury. Liver function, antioxidant content, autophagy levels, and liver injury were improved after intervention with HRS in the IRI + HRS group compared with the IRI group.

Conclusion: Intervention with hydrogen-rich saline could exert a protective effect against liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined resection injury through the reduction of oxidative stress and hepatocyte autophagy.

Open access

D. Marcinčáková, N. Červeňáková and M. Miłek

Abstract

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) of the Asteraceae family is known for its pharmacological effects and has been used in therapy for centuries. Currently extracts of all parts of this plant are used — root, leaves and flowers. The extracts are prepared using various extraction agents that may significantly affect the effectiveness and therapeutic spectrum of the extracts. The aim of this study was to use three different solvents for the preparation of the extracts from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves and flowers, namely triton X-100 (2 %), nonidet P-40 (2 %) and acetone (30 %). After extraction, the extractants were evaporated and the dried extracts were dissolved in water to obtain a series of solutions of the concentrations: 125, 250, 500 and 1000 µg.ml–1. The biological effects of the extracts were investigated by means of the MTT test of cell viability. Rabbit kidney epithelial cells (RK13) exposed to the extracts for 24 and 48 hours were used as a model cell line. We observed that the acetone extract of dandelion leaves and flowers at lower concentrations caused an increase in the viability of the treated cells in comparison with the control cells which were not exposed to the extracts (P < 0.05). At the same time, we observed a significant effect of the solvent used for the preparation of the dry extracts on the viability of the cells. The residues of the extractants caused a decrease in the cell viability almost to zero, which in fact means the death of the cells. The selection of the correct extractant for the preparation of the extracts is essential regarding the use of extracts in the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries.

Open access

E. Marettová and M. Maretta

Abstract

The bovine mammary gland is a special gland characterized by high secretory activity. During lactation the cellular and fibrous components of the interstitial tissue septa are exposed to store accumulated secretory products. The aim of this study was to find and study the cells in the stroma of the bovine lactating mammary gland. For this purpose, the immunohistochemical methods and antibodies against the smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin were used. The myoepithelial cells (MEC) which stained with smooth muscle actin (SMA), were found supporting the secretory units and the intralobular ducts. Coexpression of the SMA and desmin were found in the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels. The fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and free cells positive to vimentin were located in the connective tissue septa. The results of this study on the mammary glands indicated that smooth muscle cells (SMC) were altered in the lactating mammary gland, with additional cells such as fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) participated in the storage and after milk let-down they allowed the mammary glands to return to their original state.

Open access

Hadi Eftekhari, Alireza Jahandideh, Ahmad Asghari, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh and Saeed Hesaraki

Abstract

Introduction: In recent years, the use of bone scaffolds as bone tissue substitutes, especially the use of such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, has been very popular. Today, the use of modern engineering techniques and advances in nanotechnology have expanded the use of nanomaterials as bone scaffolds for bone tissue applications.

Material and Methods: This study was performed on 60 adult male New Zealand rabbits divided into four experimental groups: the control group without any treatment, the second group receiving hydroxyapatite, the third group treated with β-tricalcium phosphate, and the fourth group receiving nanocomposite polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. In a surgical procedure, a defect 6 mm in diameter was made in a hind limb femur. Four indexes were used to assess histopathology, which were union index, spongiosa index, cortex index, and bone marrow.

Results: The results showed that nanocomposite PCL and control groups always had the respective highest and lowest values among all the groups at all time intervals. The histopathological assessment demonstrated that the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone in the nanocomposite PCL group was higher than in other groups.

Conclusion: All these data suggest that PCL had positive effects on the bone healing process, which could have great potential in tissue engineering and clinical applications.

Open access

Bekir Oguz, Nalan Ozdal and M. Serdar Deger

Abstract

Introduction: Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are roundworms of dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the infection caused by these ascarids in cats and dogs, using microscopic and molecular analysis methods.

Material and Methods: Adult ascarids were gathered from the faeces of dogs and cats in Van province, in 2015–2016. Existing keys and PCR sequencing of the ITS-2 fragment were used to identify the morphological features of the parasite species.

Results: It was observed that out of 20 adult ascarids, 17 and 3 were found to be Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, respectively. The ITS-2 gene region was amplified by PCR to perform molecular analysis. Genotyping indicated that the dogs and cats were infected with T. canis and T. cati, respectively, and none had Toxascaris leonina.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characteristics of adult ascaridoid nematodes from cats and dogs in Turkey. The molecular approaches established in this study enable molecular identification and genetic structure studies of the ascaridoids.

Open access

Ramazan Yildiz, Mahmut Ok, Merve Ider, Ugur Aydogdu, Amir Naseri, Kurtulus Parlak and Erdem Gulersoy

Abstract

Introduction: Intestinal obstruction such as atresia coli causes pathophysiological changes in gastrointestinal tissue due to the rise of intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study is to determine the intestinal damage with intestinal biomarkers in calves with atresia coli.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 40 Holstein calves diagnosed with atresia coli with mild to moderate abdominal distention and 10 healthy Holstein calves which served as the control. Blood samples were collected from all calves, and then serum concentrations of intestinal biomarkers were estimated, namely intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP), liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), using commercially available specific bovine ELISA kits. An automatic blood gas analyser was employed for determining the lactate concentration.

Results: The concentrations of serum LFABP (P < 0.01), IFABP, TFF3, IAP, and blood lactate (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in calves with atresia coli than in healthy calves.

Conclusion: The calves affected with atresia coli exhibited severe intestinal damage, and IFABP, LFABP, and TFF3 have significant diagnostic importance and play a useful role in determining the intestinal damage due to intestinal obstruction. High levels of IAP and lactate may serve as a signal for the development of intestinal injury.

Open access

Marcin Gołyński, Piotr Dębiak, Magdalena Gołyńska, Ewa Myśliwiec, Piotr Szkodziak, Grzegorz Kalisz, Anna Śmiech, Krzysztof Lutnicki and Marcin Szczepanik

Abstract

Introduction: Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism is a clinical problem in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in people and animals and is an example of metabolic disease that can lead to fertility disorders and can give elastographic testicular changes.

Material and Methods: Ultrasound elastography using the Esaote MyLab Twice ultrasound system and a morphological examination of testes were performed in seven methimazole-administered (group E) and seven healthy rats (group C).

Results: The elasticity ratio of strains in the scrotal wall of the near-field test area to testicular tissue (ELX-T-RAT) and hardness percentage of strained tissues in the defined area of a testicle (ELX-T%HRD) in group E were statistically significantly lower than in group C. The degree of spermatogenesis was statistically significantly higher in group E than in group C and similarly seminiferous tubule diameters in group E were statistically significantly higher than in group C. Body weight and testicular weight in group E were statistically significantly lower than in group C.

Conclusion: Changes in the elastographical parameters of testes may result from disorders secondary to hypothyroidism. The usefulness of elastography is noteworthy in the case of evaluation of testis function in patients with some metabolic disorders.