Browse

31 - 40 of 9,250 items :

  • Geosciences x
Clear All
The Nexus Between Urbanisation and Human Empowerment: Income Group Based Findings of Bidirectional Causality

Abstract

The economic and social drivers of democratisation and the emergence and establishment of democratic institutions are longstanding themes of academic discourse. Within this broad body of literature, it has been argued that the process of urbanisation is also conducive to the emergence and consolidation of democracy through a number of different channels. Cities offer better access to education and facilitate organised public action and the demand for more democratic rule and respect of human rights. The nexus between urbanisation and human rights is the theme that is taken up in the present paper. Using a sample of 123 countries for the period 1981–2011, the paper examines empirically the association between urbanisation and human empowerment using the Cingranelli-Richards Index. In broad terms, the findings reported herein do not point to a strong nexus across all income groups. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting the presence of such a statistically significant positive association in specific cases.

Open access
Paradoxe Aushandlungen von Migration im Diskurs um die Leipziger Eisenbahnstraße Paradoxical negotiations of migration in discourses around the Eisenbahnstraße in the city of Leipzig

Zusammenfassung

Verschiebungen bzw. wechselseitige Bedingtheiten von neuen gesellschaftlichen Ein- und Ausschlüssen im Prozess der Internationalisierung und Diversifizierung von Städten genauer zu betrachten, ist Ziel dieses Beitrags. Mithilfe der Paradoxie im Sinne eines heuristischen Zugangs werden scheinbar widersprüchliche Ein- und Ausschlüsse von Migration in einem langjährigen stadtentwicklungspolitischen Schwerpunktraum der Stadt Leipzig untersucht. Eine Analyse der lokalen Berichterstattung und stadtentwicklungspolitischer Dokumente zeigt, dass im Diskurs um die Leipziger Eisenbahnstraße eine klassische urbane Diskursfigur reproduziert wird. Dabei wird Migration einerseits als produktiver Faktor im Sinne einer ökonomischen Ressource verhandelt und andererseits als Faktor unproduktiver Devianz problematisiert. Da Formen der Inklusion gewünschter Zuwanderung an anderer Stelle an Ausschlüsse und Kontrolle unerwünschter Zuwanderung gekoppelt werden, entstehen paradox erscheinende diskursive Logiken im Umgang mit einem pluralisierten und stark durch Migration geprägten Stadtraum. Der Ausruf einer Parallelwelt, der an eine zu integrierende Migrationsbevölkerung gerichtet ist, sowie die Beschwörung der „Stadt der Vielfalt“, die eher diffus und damit weitestgehend anonym bleibt, stehen jedoch im Widerspruch zu einer allgemeinen Anerkennung migrationsgesellschaftlicher Realität. Trotzdem oder gerade weil Leipzig eine Vorreiterrolle im ostdeutschen Kontext in puncto Migration einnimmt, entbehrt sie (noch) der Selbstverständlichkeit und bleibt eine hochgradig sensible Angelegenheit.

Open access
Practical dimension of urban and regional resilience concepts: a proposal of resilience strategy model

Abstract

It is not only growth and development that is of value to local, regional and central governments, but also the ability to absorb negative phenomena and the ability to continuously transform socio-economic systems. Resilience strategies thus serve as a response to the more and more frequent and intense natural, social and economic challenges. In some approaches to urban resilience, special attention is paid to activities undertaken by cities to become inclusive, integrated, robust, resourceful, reflective, redundant and flexible. In regional strategies the emphasis is on diversity, dispersion, mutuality and modularity. The aim of the paper is to synthesise selected qualities of resilient cities and regions into a new model of resilience strategy. It assumes that goals at each level of strategy are formulated according to adaptive interpretation of the resilience concept. Development of such model would enable the use of the concept by practitioners responsible for creating development strategies.

Open access
Principal features of Chornohora climate (Ukrainian Carpathians)

Abstract

Chornohora is the highest mountain ridge in the Ukrainian Carpathians with 6 peaks of an altitude over 2,000 m above sea level (Hoverla is the highest peak, 2,061 m a.s.l). Its climate is explored less than other mountain ridges in Europe. The massif is a climatic barrier for air masses on NW-SE line. To describe the climate of this area data from the weather station at Pozhyzhevska alpine meadow for the years 1961–2010 were used. The seasonal and long-term variability of air temperature, atmospheric precipitation and snow cover were investigated on the background of air circulation types. The results show that general features of Chornohora climate depend both, on elevation above sea level and on air circulation. Lowest temperature is observed at N-NE circulation and highest precipitation – at western air inflow. Long-term changes of examined climate elements in Chornohora show significant increase in mean (0.13°/10 years) and minimum (0.22°C/10 years) air temperature as well as in snow cover depth and number of snowy days.

Open access
Reconstruction of the primary bottom of a unique crater lake in the “Meteoryt Morasko Reserve” (Poland)

Abstract

There are a total of several million lakes in the world, which includes only approximately 30 crater lakes. Due to this extreme global rarity, they are the subject of research in many scientific disciplines. In spite of the widespread interest in them, however, many issues still require detailed investigation. In the case of the Morasko crater lake (Poland), hydrological research has been weakly developed so far. The undertaken analysis, which employed a complex research procedure involving the use of georadar, geological corings and bathymetric measurements, aimed to determine the primary bottom of the lake, and further to determine the scale and rate of its evolution. The modern water level suggests that the lake basin is currently approximately 55% filled in with organic matter, and the rate of its sedimentation in the deepest place can be estimated at approximately 0.8 mm·y−1.

Open access
Riding without a ticket: geography of free fare public transport policy in Poland

Abstract

A policy instrument promoting a free fare public transport policy (FFPT) has recently been put into practice in 66 municipalities across Poland. By contributing to the academic debate on the concept of FFPT (e.g. Kębłowski 2019), the main goal of this paper is to create a typology of the schemes where FFPT is in operation in Poland based on analyses of a geographical mapping of these projects. This study analyses how different municipalities are implementing the concept in order to define a typology of FFTP projects and to understand how the development landscape of the urban transport system is changing in the light of free fare transport policies, topics which are not fully covered in the academic literature. The findings confirm that there is a new dynamic in the development of urban transport systems and permit the identification of key characteristics of this trend. Besides the typology of implementation of FFPT, the study also presents an up-to-date inventory of FFPT projects with the key characteristic features of each system. Although the study does not provide specific recommendations regarding the introduction of a FFPT policy, it represents a good starting point for future and more detailed studies. Such studies are necessary in order to understand the role of FFPT not only in the context of the development of a given transport system, its impact on modal split, and travel behaviour, but also to uncover the different politics which lie behind them.

Open access
The Rise and Fall of the Celtic Tiger and the evolution of an Urban System: 1996–2011

Abstract

During the 1990s the Celtic Tiger era began in the Republic of Ireland. This article tracks the response of the Irish Urban System to that remarkable period of growth ended abruptly with the Global Economic Crisis of 2008. Using Small Area Population Statistics from Ireland’s Central Statistics Office for the years 1996, 2002, 2006 and 2011 it was possible to record growth across the towns and cities of Ireland that constituted the Irish Urban System. The location, size, type and rates of change were recorded and mapped with a view towards discovering the extent to which the urban hierarchy and the spatial distribution was being altered, and by what geographical processes. Over 15 years the national population grew by 26% with most of that growth taking place in urban centres. A clear diffusion outwards from the Dublin region is noticeable and the capital’s role in systemic change is explored alongside other factors. The article highlights the changing nature of growth over time and, based on the empirical observations made, identifies a sequence of clear stages in the growth of the urban system. The article concludes with a proposal for a Model of Urban System Evolution under conditions of Rapid Economic Growth based on the distinct phases, or stages, of growth identified in Ireland’s towns and cities from 1996–2011.

Open access
Urban Citizenship and the Spatial Encounter between Turkish Migrants and Syrian Refugees in Berlin

Abstract

This article critically discusses how Turkish migrants as an established migrant group have interpreted and acted on the arrival of Syrian refugees in Berlin from 2015 onwards and whether their responses have resulted in new spaces in which new contestations and/or solidarities emerge. To this end, it focuses on the processes and the ways in which established groups (re-)articulate their urban citizenship and belonging to a particular urban space in relation to newcomers. Building on the analytical framework of relational and agency-centered articulation of urban citizenship and drawing on research data collected in the Kreuzberg and Neukölln neighborhoods of Berlin, the analysis has two main findings. Firstly, Turkish migrants have been involved in solidarity activities and contribute to a more inclusive urban citizenship regarding Syrian refugees. At the same time, they perceive Syrian refugees as a threat to their standing in the city and their right to the usage of urban space. This results in a more defensive urban citizenship against the refugees. Secondly, the unequal power relations and local, national and transitional dynamics act as intervening factors shaping Turkish migrants' responses to Syrian refugees and the process of urban citizenship formation.

Open access
Zur Messung der Nutzung regionaler Potenziale beim Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien. Eine empirische Analyse deutscher Landkreise

Kurzfassung

Der Beitrag beantwortet zwei bislang kaum behandelte Fragen: Wie gut schöpfen deutsche Regionen ihr Potenzial zur Erzeugung regenerativer Energien aus und welche Faktoren beeinflussen diese Ausbaueffizienz? Mit dem neuartigen quantitativ-empirischen Konzept der Ausbaueffizienz wird das Ausmaß ermittelt, mit dem Regionen ihre natürlichen und sozioökonomischen Potenziale zur Erzeugung von Energie aus erneuerbaren Quellen zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt ausgeschöpft haben. Dieser Ansatz erlaubt unter Berücksichtigung der Energieträger Wind-, Solar- und Biogasenergie einen relativen Vergleich von Regionen, ihre Ausbaueffizienz über die Zeit sowie die Identifikation von Best-practice-Regionen. Mittels der innovativen Methodik werden deutsche Landkreise im Zeitraum 2000 bis 2014 verglichen. Dabei kommt eine robuste nichtparametrische Effizienzanalyse zum Einsatz, deren Ergebnisse durch qualitative Experteninterviews in ausgewählten Kreisen Niedersachsens validiert werden. Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung zeigen große regionale Unterschiede in der Ausbaueffizienz sowohl zwischen Landkreisen als auch zwischen (Landkreisen in verschiedenen) Bundesländern. Auch bezüglich der Art der drei betrachteten regenerativen Energieträger unterscheiden sich die deutschen Landkreise erheblich. Die empirischen Befunde sind räumlich und zeitlich sehr differenziert und erlauben auch deshalb diverse lokal- und landespolitische Schlussfolgerungen. Insbesondere sollten Landkreise (und Bundesländer) mit bislang eher geringer Ausbaueffizienz von solchen mit hoher Ausbaueffizienz lernen. In der Breite können diese politischen Lerneffekte nachhaltig zum Gelingen der Energiewende beitragen.

Open access
Zwischen Realitätsverweigerung und Pragmatismus: Migration-led regeneration in Genua und Manchester

Zusammenfassung

Ausgehend von der These, dass Stadtentwicklungspolitik ein wesentlicher Bestandteil einer zunehmenden local governance of migration ist, untersucht dieser Beitrag die Schnittstellen zwischen migrationsbezogenen Politiken und migrantischen Handlungspraxen einerseits und Stadtentwicklungsstrategien andererseits. Es wird davon ausgegangen, dass europäische Städte in übergeordnete (supra)nationale Migrationsregime eingegliedert sind, die deren institutionelles Handeln im Umgang mit Migration beeinflussen. Der Vergleich zweier Städte in unterschiedlichen Migrationsregimen ermöglicht es, Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der Verbindung zwischen Migrations- und Stadtentwicklungsfragen, die sich trotz oder aufgrund der Einbindung in unterschiedliche Regime ergeben, herauszuarbeiten. Betrachtet werden Genua in Italien und Manchester in Großbritannien. Der Vergleich zeigt, dass sowohl Städte mit wenig institutionalisierten Migrationspolitiken als auch mit langjährigen migrationsbezogenen Politiken sich insbesondere auf zivilgesellschaftliche Akteure verlassen. Migration-led regeneration findet statt, wird in den Regenerierungsstrategien jedoch nicht explizit thematisiert.

Open access