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Vasiliki Kremastioti, Athanasios Anastasiou, Panagiotis Liargovas, Dimitrios Komninos and Zacharias Dermatis

Abstract

Health Care is a sensitive issue that concerns not only the individual but also society in general. Health economics are a specialization of the economists in the health sector who aim for the proper function of hospital administration. It deals with issues related to the financing and delivery of health services and the role of such services and other personal decisions in contributing to personal health. Many researches refer to the problems that each health unit faces, emphasizing on the resources, programs and health expenditure. Some of these programs, especially the most effective, are mentioned in this research. Their creation was based on the best quality of health services in all OECD countries.

With this research, we aim to develop a methodological framework for evaluating the total health expenditure (consists of all expenditures or outlays for medical care, prevention, promotion, rehabilitation, community health activities, health administration and regulation and capital formation with the predominant objective of improving health) in the 23 OECD countries, by creating a panel data regression and analyzing the results, from 2000 to 2014. For this reason, some of the most important variables (macroeconomic and related to the health sector), were used as tools to assess the performance of each country, as far as the resources and the expenditure for the health care are concerned. Every explanatory variable that was used in this sample, but also the combination of a number of these explanatory variables showed a positive correlation with total expenditures as a percentage of GDP in the majority of the equations. Some variables showed a negative correlation with total health expenditures, which doesn’t fit with the economic theory. Financial crisis is the reason for this.

Open access

Evelyne Ingrid Mitu and Mile Vasic

Abstract

Despite the differences between Japanese and styles, both will have a huge impact on their national economies. In terms of cultural management styles will continue to present significant differences. Although nothing is certain, both Americans and Japanese must continue to adapt their management styles to maintain global competitiveness. In general, human resources, labor relations within organizations are mainly features that differentiate the Japanese management system of other countries, especially the US.

Open access

Luiza Ionescu, Maria Toma and Mathurin Founanou

Abstract

At the level of any entity (company), inventory represents an important category of current assets, and implicitly, of total assets. Starting from the importance of this category of assets for the normal development of the production or sales activity, this paper has as priority objectives the following: delimitation of the theoretical aspects regarding the inventory valuation of the sold goods; determining the impact that inventory valuation methods may have on the financial position and financial performance of the company; applied analysis of inventory valuation options. The results obtained from both theoretical and practical research verify the main assumption that the inventory valuation options have a different impact on financial situation and the financial performance of an entity.

Open access

Nina Labus and Brigita Gajšek

Abstract

Successful companies are continually striving to streamline costs and optimize processes, enabling them to grow progress, develop and ensure competitiveness on the market. A large part of the costs arises in warehouses, where up to 55% of total costs are generated by order-picking, which makes it important and interesting in terms of research. The paper explores “picker to part” order-picking concept, which enables flexible work and is the optimal choice for most companies. The concept is associated with a high level of work-related injuries and work-related illnesses. Work requires physical efforts resulting from handling heavy goods, performing repetitive movements and using manipulative means. Human as the main actor of the concept affects the costs caused by picking and the quality of work done, which depends on technological support, physically and psychologically capable and motivated people. Due to the high costs of service, the focus on time planning and productivity increases. Contrary, the lack of attention is paid to the working conditions and the health status of the pickers. To overcome this gab, a review of scientific and professional literature on ergonomic principles in picking concept »picker to part« was carried out, followed by a quantitative survey of ergonomic properties in warehousing activities. Results revealed that more than 60% of the surveyed order-pickers associate problems with health with the characteristics of work, about 24% of them associate health problems with the use of a particular means of transport, and all agree that provided measures to reduce physical effort and greater support of technologies influence on increased speed of work and better health status of order-pickers.

Open access

Olusogo Ogunleye, Akinyemi Ajibola, Oluwafemi Enilolobo and Olufolakemi Shogunle

Abstract

The study investigated the effects of road transport infrastructure on agricultural sector development in Nigeria from 1985 to 2014, using secondary annual time series data on agricultural development (proxy by gross domestic product in the Agric sector) road transport infrastructure (proxy by length of paved road per square kilometer of area) export and capital, all obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) [3], and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) [16], statistical bulletins. The data were analyzed using Granger Causality test and Ordinary Least Square estimation techniques. The study concluded that a positive and statistically significant relationship exists between road transport infrastructures (LRT) also evidence was found of a unidirectional causality from agricultural sector development to transport infrastructure. The study, therefore, recommends that adequate and timely maintenance of existing roads should be carried out as well as enacting appropriate regulations that ensure proper implementation and completion of new road construction contracts in the country in order to boost agricultural sector development, reduce wastage of farm produce and increase the possibility of economic diversification.

Open access

Arbia Hlali

Abstract

This paper applies a non-parametric method to provide level technical efficiency for 7 Tunisian ports during 18 years (1998-2015). These ports represent different data set. The use of the model of variable returns to scale (VRS) has led to interesting results. The results show that the most ports are characterized by low levels of technical efficiency, with the exception port of Rades. In addition, the result shows the variation of variable returns to scale and constant returns to scale of technical port’s efficiency. Furthermore, we concluded that the panel data improves the efficiency estimates.

Open access

Daniel Adrian Doss, David Mcelreath, Rebecca Goza, Raymond Tesiero, Balakrishna Gokaraju and Russ Henley

Abstract

This research examined quantitatively in-port grain loading levels during the periods preceding and succeeding selected human-made and natural disasters among U.S. Gulf Coast ports. The array of selected disasters consisted of the 2010 British Petroleum oil spill, the 2011 Mississippi River flood, Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Gustav, and Hurricane Isaac. The outcomes of the analyses showed that the examined in-port Gulf Coast grain loading activities have not fully recovered and achieved the level of normalcy that existed before the examined cataclysms.

Open access

Adebayo Owolabi Oyetubo, Oluwaseyi Joseph Afolabi and Muhammed Etudaiye Ohida

Abstract

Road traffic accident is one of the major causes of death in Nigeria. Road accidents have taken away so many lives in Nigeria today that hardly does any single disease match its mortality prowess. People have died prematurely and properties worth several millions of Naira have been lost as a result of road traffic accident. This paper gives a full discussion on road traffic safety issues and the methodology used were through the collection of data using questionnaire and accident information from the Nigeria Police Force, FRSC etc. The primary information for this research was sourced through the use of structured questionnaire, personal observation and interviews of road users in the study area. Secondary data emanated from published and unpublished sources such as government records, internet, journals, books etc. The findings were presented in descriptive and inferential form using frequencies, percentages, tables, mean and chi-square analytical techniques. The findings from the study revealed among many others; that Male involved more in road accident compare to female counterpart in Minna Niger State. Private car had more accident compare to Taxi, The number of accident in each zone does not depend on the population of that zone, etc.

Open access

Eric Zheng, Yong Tan, Paulo Goes, Ramnath Chellappa, D.J. Wu, Michael Shaw, Olivia Sheng and Alok Gupta

Open access

Ahmed AlKalbani, Hepu Deng, Booi Kam and Xiaojuan Zhang

Abstract

The increasing recognition of the importance of information security has created institutional pressures on organizations to comply with information security standards and policies for protecting their information. How such pressures influence information security compliance in organisations, however, is unclear. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the impact of institutional pressures on information security compliance in organizations. With the use of structural equation modelling for analysing the data collected through an online survey, the study shows that coercive pressures, normative pressures, and mimetic pressures positively influence information security compliance in organizations. It reveals that the benefits of information security compliance motivate management to strengthen their commitments at information security compliance. Furthermore, the study finds out that social pressures do not have a significant impact on management commitments towards information security compliance. Theoretically this study contributes to the information security research by better understanding how institutional pressures can be used for enhancing information security compliance in organizations. Practically this study informs information security policy makers of the major institutional drivers for information security compliance.