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Introduction:Students could react to the learning activities, teachers, or administrators knowingly and willfully, many times intentionally by resisting in various ways. A detailed analysis of this definition indicates that unlike naughty behaviors, resistance behaviors do not develop suddenly, they are often planned beforehand by the student, and they contain some messages to the person or institution they are directed at. These kinds of behaviors could have negative effects not only on students’ academic, social, and psychological development but also on teachers’ professional satisfaction. Therefore, these issues should be elaborated carefully. However, despite the importance indicated in the literature, students’ resistance behaviors are one of the neglected issues that are not investigated adequately. With reference to this need, the presented study aims to identify perceptions of primary school teachers about students’ resistance behaviors.

Methods:The participants were 152 primary school teachers. Data were collected through the Student Resistance Behaviors Scale for Teachers (SRBS-T) and Teacher Interview Form. In addition to descriptive statistics, data were analyzed using t-test and one-way ANOVA. Also, a qualitative descriptive analysis was conducted regarding qualitative data of the study.

Results:Results show that the mean scores for SRBS were “medium” on a 5-point Likert scale. While teachers’ perceptions about resistance behaviors showed no significant differences according to gender and the type of school they graduated from, scores showed significant differences in terms of teachers’ years of seniority. According to the teachers, the most encountered resistant behaviors were gathered under the themes of resistance to teacher authority and hostile attitudes towards the teacher/peers.

Discussion:Through discussion, the results obtained by the scale and interviews were discussed. All the findings showed that teachers are important receivers of resistance behaviors and they are facing with different types of resistance in the classroom.

Limitations:It is obvious that these results were limited to the reached primary school teachers. Another limitation was that the data within the study collected via SRBS-T and interviews.

Conclusions:The study showed that teachers and students are the key components of the educational process and students could show resistance to both the process and teachers in different ways. As this study only focused on primary teachers’ experiences, more studies could be organized through understanding the resistance middle and high school teachers face with as well. Further research could be conducted with students to see how they feel and behave when they feel resistance as well as with other teachers working at various levels of education and in various institutions.


Introduction:This paper presents the results of a survey on excellent teachers conducted in Hungary in 2018. The main question of the study was how pedagogical talents can be characterised by competences and personality traits according to effective teachers and their colleagues. Furthermore, what effective teachers think about their own competences and characteristics, as well as how that is related to their beliefs of pedagogical talents was tested.

Methods:The online questionnaire method was applied in the research. The sample involved effective teachers (N=92) of high-risk students (N=25) and of gifted students (N=43), as well as supervisor teachers (N=24) who were selected by judgment sampling. The control group of teachers (N=76) had similar characteristics to the sample as they were matched by the type of institution and geographical location. The data was processed using SPSS software.

Results:The excellent teachers’ beliefs about pedagogical talents showed differences in many ways. Excellent teachers of high-risk students had the most child-centred view. Not only did they pay attention to students’ needs while planning and organizing lessons, but they also found the students’ feedback important, much more than other subsamples. They also said in high proportion they can handle the challenges related to the societal level of their work. Among all the sub-samples, they indicated most frequently that excellent teachers should be happy, initiative and practical. Supervisor teachers unanimously indicated that good teachers should be highly cooperative and also that excellent teachers should be friendly and flexible. It turned out from the research that excellent teachers of gifted children used significantly fewer teaching methods than the other group. Among all sub-samples, they were the ones who found the competences of “developing student groups and communities” the least important. The data showed that the teachers in this sub-group felt less able to adapt to the changes related to the societal level of their work. The words “theoretical”, “isolated”, “serious”, „distant” appeared in a significantly higher proportion among these teachers when speaking about pedagogic talents in general. These words were frequently used when spoking about their own characteristics.

Discussion:The results of the excellent teachers of high-risk students and supervisor teachers showed similarity in many regards. Both groups seemed to be methodologically well-prepared, and able to give varied enjoyable lessons, as well as to develop student communities; and to carry out continuous reflective practice. Excellent teachers of gifted students focused on academic knowledge much more than other sub-groups. They also planned and managed their lessons differently. The background of this phenomena could be that their students’ knowledge and motivation is more homogenous.

Limitations:Although the size of the sample was not representative, the study confirmed and complemented former relevant research.

Conclusion:The results showed that pedagogical talents can have multiple manifestations., which can be caused by the wide range of pedagogical work and the related roles. On the other hand, there are different teachers’ characteristics and competences. The study also showed that teachers’ views about excellent teachers are closely connected to the particularities of the taught student group. The researchers hope that these results can be an inspiration for further studies in this field.


This article discusses the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Attention Deficit Disorder) with attention deficit disorder. The publication contains an attempt to explain and characterize the hyperkinetic team. The issues in it concern the causes and effects of the occurrence of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. The methods of functioning of a child with ADHD in the school and family environment are also presented. The author presents suggestions for helping students with ADHD as well as forms of cooperation with their parents. The article indicates positives resulting from the student’s statement of a hyperkinetic group. The author does not focus only on negative features of a given phenomenon, but presents them in a diversified perspective, she tries to see the values reflected in the culture of everyday life.


Artykuł składa się z krótkiego wprowadzania i refleksji na temat kształcenia specjalnego na etapie edukacji przedszkolnej w Polsce. Dalej omawiam istotne elementy procesu diagnozy i terapii w polskim systemie oświatowym. Opisuję rolę rodziców i poradni psychologiczno-pedagogicznej w tym procesie. Kolejnym elementem niniejszego opracowania jest charakterystyka dziewczynki, u której po trzech latach edukacji w ogólnodostępnym przedszkolu niepublicznym, zdiagnozowano zespół Aspergera. Zwięźle prezentuję jej historię jej pobytu w przedszkolu. Rozważania kończę opisem umiejętności dziewczynki na koniec tego etapu nauki. Historia ta pokazuje, że nawet późna diagnoza ma sens i może być szansą na rozpoczęcie kształcenia w szkole ogólnodostępnej na kolejnym etapie edukacji. Podsumowanie stanowi prezentacja wniosków płynących z własnego doświadczenia i lat przeżytych wraz z dziećmi z zaburzeniami w ich rzeczywistości terapeutycznej, często od momentu diagnozy do pokonywania kolejnych etapów edukacyjnych.


The present day is characterized by many new technical and scientific solutions. The goal is probably to improve human existence. A computer and any related issues or a mobile phone; they are supposed to make life easier, but they also generate many negative phenomena. One of the most important is communication, increasingly poor in content (sms), “virtual world” at the expense of the real. Negative phenomena have also occurred from the social side. The sense of social exclusion is intensifying, which is a good example of older people. Empathy is the solution and also a way to address the negative tendency. It results in prosocial processes, through which people will look for direct relationships in interpersonal contacts, so there will be a renewal of interpersonal relationships that have characterized humanity for centuries.


Since the early 2000s, a plethora of web-based learning technologies has been developed, each proposing to improve the student experience. Yet, a study conducted by Martin et al. (2018) demonstrate sporadic new technology adoption in Higher Education (HE), despite wide-scale social interest and a wealth of academic publications. This paper aims to provide a framework to explore this problem from an institutional perspective, involving both educational planners and pedagogues. This framework, the Pedagogic Realignment with Organisational Priorities and Horizon Emergent Technologies Framework or PROPHET Framework, is a new three phase framework that combines two distinct research methodologies used by policy makers and pedagogues with a new dynamic multi-level diffusion of innovation (DMDI) model specifically designed to support dialogue between these stakeholders. Application of the PROPHET Framework will enable stakeholders to arrive at a common understanding about the efficacy of such new technologies and collaborative exploration of technology through these different lenses will lead to increased confidence in its value and relevance. It is hypothesised that undertaking this process will increase the adoption rate of Horizon Emergent Technologies, resulting in operational policy amendments and evidence of impact in the learning environment.


While research has established the importance of questions as a key strategy used to facilitate student interaction in online discussions, there is a need to explore how the structure of questions influence students’ interactions. Using learning analytics, we explored the relationship between student-student interaction and the structure of initial questions with and without the Practical Inquiry Model (PIM). Degree centrality was used as the method to analyse the number of responses each student sent (out-degree centrality) and the number of responses each student received (in-degree centrality). Findings showed that the number of responses each student sent and received was higher in the discussions initiated by the PIM-question prompts. In addition, analysis revealed a positive relationship between students’ interaction and the discussions structured with PIM and non-PIM questions. Finally, there was a significant difference in out-degree centrality but no significant difference in in-degree centrality between discussions structured with the PIM and non-PIM questions. We conclude that initial questions can be structured using PIM as a guiding framework to facilitate student-student interaction in online discussions.


Creating a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) based on analysis from research requires the adaptation of MOOC pedagogies. For example, course designers need to follow certain design principles and adapt learning content to the pedagogies and constraints of a MOOC platform. That said, this paper outlines five different learning design principles that create active learning in a MOOC. These emerged when adapting knowledge from a research case study. To exemplify the adaptation, this paper examines how research from a sociological, qualitative classroom study about a teacher who used digital technologies in foreign-language training at a Norwegian high school was adapted for a MOOC that ran on FutureLearn.