The paper presents several approaches to gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GRR) analysis regarding non-replicable measurements. Measurement systems have to deal with processes in which, by the nature of the measured object or by the type of measurement itself, measurements are not repeatable. In these cases, each sample unit can be measured only once. Such situations are referred as nonreplicable measurement systems. The aim of the paper is to map out the current approaches being used in GRR analysis in various cases of non-replicable tests and compare each other in order to find out the suitable use of analysis application. Approaches used are subject to critical analysis so that its review can serve a useful base for analysis of different non-replicable tests. At present, it is desirable to bring the improving actions in order to obtain the results of high quality from such kind of measurements. Since different non-replicable tests can measure a different quality characteristic, it is valuable to bring the appropriate designs for various tests. Subsequently, this review will serve an outline how to proceed in analyzing the results obtained by non-replicable tests. Specifically, GRR analysis works with two known designs named as “Crossed” and “Nested” design, which statistical software normally use. Doubtfully, crossed design is suggested to use at certain cases and nested at other specific cases. This is assessed and improving actions designed.
The disability pension system in Poland has operated largely unchanged since the 1970s. A compelling need to reform the system and adjust it to the challenges of the 21st century is an axiom in the Polish social policy. Unfortunately, restructuring of this system has never been, and is not a top priority for the Polish government. Ignoring this problem is a headwind against economic growth in Poland as the state is overburdened with significant social taxes. A need for the state to provide subsidies to cover current expenditures of the Social Insurance Trust Fund (FUS) is a permanent concern of the national economy. This paper highlights legislative errors and omissions in the Polish social insurance system, and the share of the state's budget devoted to financing of this system and benefit payments over the years 1991-2018. In the main part of the article, financial aspects of the operation of the pension system in Poland were presented. At the end of the article, a preliminary concept of a reform of the existing disability pension system was outlined, whose aim is in particular to improve its financial effectiveness and introduce uniform rules for the payment of pension benefits in Poland.
The strategy should be designed in such a way as the risk management can operate not only as a system for avoiding losses, but also risk management should allow recognizing and making use of occasions and create new opportunities for the organization. Risk management includes both an evaluation (analytical and evaluation) undertaking as well as planning and control activities aimed at minimizing (reducing) risk or maintaining it at an acceptable level. Security management can in particular be reduced to the issue of risk management, because risk is a quantitative expression of the functioning of systems in an environment where there are active sources of threats to system security. The article presents the problem of personnel allocation in hazardous conditions, emphasizing the possibilities of undertaking optimization actions in the safety management process. A mathematical model was formulated for this issue. An algorithm solving the problem of personnel allocation is presented. The proposed analysis is the starting point for determining the risk when using multi-station work.
The current age characterized by unstoppable progress and rapid development of new technologies and methods such as the Internet of Things, machine learning and artificial intelligence, brings new requirements for enterprise information systems. Information systems ought to be a consistent set of elements that provide a basis for information that could be used in context to obtain knowledge. To generate valid knowledge, information must be based on objective and actual data. Furthermore, due to Industry 4.0 trends such as digitalization and online process monitoring, the amount of data produced is constantly increasing – in this context the term Big Data is used. The aim of this article is to point out the role of Big Data within Industry 4.0. Nevertheless, Big Data could be used in a much wider range of business areas, not just in industry. The term Big Data encompasses issues related to the exponentially growing volume of produced data, their variety and velocity of their origin. These characteristics of Big Data are also associated with possible processing problems. The article also focuses on the issue of ensuring and monitoring the quality of data. Reliable information cannot be inferred from poor quality data and the knowledge gained from such information is inaccurate. The expected results do not appear in such a case and the ultimate consequence may be a loss of confidence in the information system used. On the contrary, it could be assumed that the acquisition, storage and use of Big Data in the future will become a key factor to maintaining competitiveness, business growth and further innovations. Thus, the organizations that will systematically use Big Data in their decision-making process and planning strategies will have a competitive advantage.
the paper deals with problematic of machining lines of machine components for the automotive industry. There is a current issue of increasing labor productivity and economic efficiency of production with full safety of production and environmental protection. Therefore, for a specific practical assignment, the replacement of existing machinery using manual workpiece handling is performed by a fully automated safety-accessible one. For this purpose, an analysis of the technical and operating parameters of the proposed NC machines has been prepared. Attention is paid to optimization of material flow and arrangement of individual workplaces of production machines including handling and transfer of material between individual workplaces. Particular attention is paid to the safety of workers and improves the environmental conditions of the production plant. Finally, the overall efficiency of the proposed solution is evaluated in detail compared to the current solution.
Progressive, high-strength materials have an important position in the transport industry. In this industry, components are subject to high safety and reliability requirements because they often operate under long-term cyclic stress regimes. The paper presents results of fatigue resistance of high-strength materials such DOMEX 700MC, HARDOX 400, HARDOX 450, and INCONEL 718 (UTS from 850 to 1560 MPa) measured at high-frequency cyclic loading (f = 20 kHz, T = 20 ± 5 ° C, push-pull loading, cycle asymmetry parameter of R = -1) in the area from N = 2x106 to N = 2x108 cycles. Fatigue resistance showed a continuous decrease about average value Sa 2x108/Sa 2x106 = 19.1%.
The purpose of the paper is to present the issues of ensuring the safety of machinery and equipment in accordance with the requirements of the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC of May 17, 2006 on the essential requirements for machines, with regard to the sphere of their import and distribution. This issue is related to the dynamically developing trade in cheaper new machines, mainly from countries outside the EEA (including China) and is a priority for ensuring safety and protecting the health and life of users of this type of equipment in accordance with EU regulations. The use of a variety of machines in industry, in addition to general safety requirements, which may also include quality criteria, care for the environment and industry-specific safety management requirements (e.g. food, automotive, medical devices).
Customers are more and more deciding to use various types of services via Internet. They make very often different types of purchases. E-commerce is becoming more and more popular and developed. Unfortunately, according to customers, online shopping is not free from problems. Customers are afraid that the ordered goods will not be sent to them, will not meet their expectations, or will be destroyed during transport. An important aspect is also the payment method for this type of shopping. Customers often prefer to pay more to use the option of payment on delivery to avoid losing money if the ordered goods do not be delivered to them. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the safety of services offered via Internet. In the research the customers of different e-shops expressed their opinion on problems that may affect the safety of the offered services. Thanks to the research, it was possible to identify risk areas in accordance with the opinion of customers.
Effective project management requires consideration of aspects such as quality, costs, time, material resources, staff and communication, and risk. In the case of projects co-financed from European Union funds, the main threat is recognition of part or all of the costs as ineligible, which will result in a need to cover them from university's own funds. Therefore, not only successful completion of the project but also financial condition of the university depends on safety level of EU project management system. Main purpose of the study was to indicate actions aimed at increasing safety of EU project management system in public universities. First part of article is theoretical and was prepared based on a critical analysis of the literature in a field of project management. Second part of the text was based on primary data collected during the survey among EU project managers at public technical universities. Literature studies and results of own research have enabled preparation of recommendations to increase the level of safety of project management system co-financed from EU funds at public universities.
This article presents topics concerning fire hazards during the use of low-speed diesel engines in marine vehicles. The causes and effects of fires in the spaces of scavenge air receivers in marine diesel engines are presented. Methods to prevent and fight these fires are shown, including the operating procedures required from ship engine room operators. The possibility of training personnel to apply the abovementioned procedures during operation using simulations of a Kongsberg MC-90 IVship engine room is presented. Simulations were conducted which included a fire in a scavenge air receiver occurring during the operation of a MAN B&W 5L90MC main engine, with loads corresponding to 50% and 100% of the machine’s recommended setting.