Central areas of major cities have always been of interest to totalitarian regimes. All publicly accessible areas were meant not only to be highlights of the metropolis, but also symbols of political ideologies. In communist times the glamour of the regime was supposed to be reflected in large scale and representative urban and architectural complexes. This article presents some such examples from the era of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe. Following the typology by Krzysztof Nawratek we took a closer look at how the central public space was shaped in Kiev, Warsaw, Sofia, Bucharest and Vilnius.
A city’s public spaces ought to meet a number of requirements to serve their main purpose, that is to foster public life. They need, for instance, to answer people’s needs, fulfil certain social functions, and let people use their basic rights, among them the most important right of access. In Katowice, one of the most prominent examples of the regeneration of public spaces is now the Culture Zone. The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of social functions in the area mentioned, a fine example of the post-industrial heritage of Upper Silesia. Applying some of the qualities of public space identified in the theories adopted, the paper discusses how the Culture Zone [in Polish: Strefa Kultury] fulfils the above-mentioned demands and requirements. Is it accessible? Does it meet the need for comfort? Does it function as a leisure space? By referring to analyses and opinions presented in the literature and comparing them with the results of the author’s own empirical research, this article discusses the importance, opportunities, and shortcomings of the Culture Zone as a public space.
In this article we analyse the socio-spatial contexts and consequences of the practice of car parking in housing estates. Fredrik Barth’s idea of socially constructed boundaries and the theory of social practice form the theoretical basis of our analysis. The empirical material comes from research conducted in 2016 and 2017 in three Polish cities. We analyse the practice of parking in terms of the specific aspect of mobility that is ‘mooring’. The research shows that parking practices influence the structuring of territorial communities in housing estates on two levels: everyday activities, norms and rules, as well as social differences and boundaries in the space occupied by the housing estate.
The focus of the following article will be New Urbanism, an urbanistic movement which originated in the United States and advocated the establishment and reinforcing of communities through planning activities. Its proponents claim that the proper design of space leads to the development of a local community. The article will discuss the main principles of the New Urbanism approach, such as its social doctrine and the concept of neighbourhood. Possible benefits of New Urbanism and critical arguments regarding it will also be analysed.
The present paper focuses on spatial management regulations in order to carry out investment in the field of airport facilities. The construction, upgrades, and maintenance of airports falls within the area of responsibility of local authorities. This task poses a great challenge in terms of organisation and finances. On the one hand, an active airport is a municipal landmark and drives local economic, social and cultural development, and on the other, the scale of investment often exceeds the capabilities of local authorities.
The immediate environment of the airport determines its final use and prosperity. The objective of the paper is to review legislation that affects airports and the surrounding communities. The process of urban planning in Lodz and surrounding areas will be presented as a background to the problem of land use management in the vicinity of the airport. This paper seeks to address the following questions: if and how airports have affected urban planning in Lodz, does the land use around the airport prevent the development of Lodz Airport, and how has the situation changed over the time?
It can be assumed that as a result of lack of experience, land resources and size of investments on one hand and legislative dissonance and peculiar practices on the other, aviation infrastructure in Lodz is designed to meet temporary needs and is characterised by achieving short-term goals. Cyclical problems are solved in an intermittent manner and involve all the municipal resources, so there’s little left to secure long-term investments.
In the authors’ view, the existing urban planning system is not favourable to the temporality and variability of urban wastelands, which complement traditional urban greenery through a range of functions such as; gardens, meeting spaces, places to walk the dog etc. Consequently, the aim of the paper is to investigate functions and possible scenarios for the development of urban wastelands in Poland. The methods used in the research include a comparative assessment of wasteland case studies from Warsaw and Tarnów and a comparison of possible development scenarios based on case studies from different cities across Europe. Wastelands were researched to establish their location, their functions, the distance from inhabited areas and the types of other green areas located within a 5 min. isochrone from the surrounding housing area. Case studies of development scenarios were researched to establish their changing functions, the continuity of design and the algorithm of creation. The authors conducted qualitative interviews, mapping, inventories of territorial marks (makeshift benches or other constructions made by users showing the way they ‘own’ the area), investigation of local development plans and literature reviews to gather the data used. The collation of results has led to the creation of a ‘wastelands toolkit’ – a tool dedicated to urban planners and decision makers.
Many cities in the North are adopting an inclusionary housing policy in response to housing affordability and social inclusion, which is implemented in very few cities in the South. There is a research gap to determine the potential of this planning instrument in the fast growing cities in developing countries. This research reviews the possibility of implementing inclusionary housing policies there. This is case study research, which has selected Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, as a case study city. Data have been collected from both primary sources (site surveys and in-depth semi-structured interviews) and secondary sources. A qualitative thematic analysis has been performed. This research revealed that implementing inclusionary housing policy in Dhaka is currently challenging due to the lack of legal, financial and organisational capacity. However, this policy can be enabled through the revision of housing policy, the legal and institutional frameworks, financial mechanisms, the knowledge base, and finally through political will.
The freight transport sector is a low profit and high competition business and therefore has less ability to invest in research and development in the field of autonomous vehicles (AV) than the private car industry. There are already different levels of automation technologies in the transport industry, but most of these are serving niche demands and answers have yet to be found about whether it would be worthwhile to industrialise these technologies. New innovations from different fields are constantly changing the freight traffic industry but these are less disruptive than on other markets. The aim of this article is to show the current state of development of freight traffic with regards to AVs and analyse which future directions of development might be viable. The level of automation is very different in the case of different transport modes and most probably the technology will favour road transport over other, less environmentally harmful traffic modes.
This article classifies housing development according to horizontal and vertical intensity in the administrative capitals of each of the Polish provinces. Moreover, the distribution of individual types of residential development is assessed on the example of Warsaw. The function of the place of residence is an elementary urban function which translates itself into a large share of residential development in its structure. It assumes different forms which depend on many factors, such as the location in the given region of the world, conditions of the natural environment, housing tradition or location in the city. It should be borne in mind that cities tend to be heterogeneous urban organisms in which different periods of their development overlap which is reflected in the variations in the appearance of development in its individual parts. The character of buildings changes together with distance from the city centre: the farther from it, the less urban the development tends to be, gradually turning into a rural one both within the city boundaries and outside them. The distribution of residential buildings was analysed with the use of measures of centrography, i.e. centre of gravity, standard deviation and the standard deviation ellipse. Data on residential buildings in the cities analysed was obtained from Polish official geodetic and cartographic databases (państwowy zasób geodezyjny i kartograficzny [PZGiK]) – in particular, Database of Topographic Objects. In turn, layers with land parcels come from the Land-Parcel Identification System [LPIS]. Further analyses use information regarding the vertical and horizontal intensity according to the classification proposed by S. Liszewski (1978).
The paper discusses the spatial consequences of the widespread use of self-driving cars and the resulting changes in the structure of urban areas. Analysing present knowledge on the technology, functionality and future forms of organisation of mobility with this type of means of transportation, conclusions are presented concerning the expected changes in the organisation of space in urban areas. The main achievement of the investigation is an outline of the fields of future research on the spatial consequences of a transportation system with a large share of self-driving cars.