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Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main purpose of the article is to research the state of grain-product subcomplex of the agro-industrial complex and identify the main trends in its functioning as a prerequisite for the implementation of the external economic potential of Ukraine.

Materials and methods: The research used methodical tools for analysis, construction of econometric models, as well as open information sources of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine.

Results: A set of factors (independent variables) were determined and the existence of theoretically their relationship with the production profitability of cereals and legumes (dependent variable) was substantiated. The regression equations for the investigated factors dependence were formed. The reliability of the econometric model was proved using Fisher’s criterion and Student’s t-criterion test.

Conclusions: To increase the external economic potential of the grain-product subcomplex of the agro-industrial complex, it is advisable to focus on building rational mechanisms for managing the identified determinants of efficiency ensuring of the latter.

Summary

The economic forum currently sees the postulate of a multi-dimensional analysis of economic issues, as exemplified by behavioural and institutional economics, cliometrics, wikinomics and others – taking into consideration of the achievements of cultural anthropology, sociology, ethics, philosophy, the history of economics, as well as selected exact sciences, such as mathematics and physics. The redistribution economics, the relationship between capital and labour, the issues of the precariat, guaranteed minimum income for each citizen – both conditional and unconditional, which is a new idea for economy and the society – become more and more apparent in the aforementioned areas. The idea stems from the criticism of neoliberalism, and it interferes with the system of values shaped under capitalism, the role of the welfare state, the welfare system from the perspective of institutions and beneficiaries, who would replace their current privileges with inalienable rights. The author recommends unconditional minimum income upon providing a characteristic of a wide scope of postulated solutions, implemented on an experimental scale and applied in the practice of social policy. The monograph, while constituting the author’s moderate manifesto, provides a wide – in terms of time, authors and trends in economy – review of the standpoints on the participation in the national income.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the paper is the formation of household savings in Ukraine and their sources of aggregate household incomes, with particular attention to the Ukrainian labor migration. It is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in the form of remittances, which help improve the welfare of population and ensure economic growth in the country.

The purpose of the paper is to research and determine major trends of the development of households’ financial resources, to examine the foreign experience of forming and use of residents’ savings and to determine the ways it can be applied in Ukraine, and to analyze the main trends of state policy in the regulation of labor migrants’ remittances.

Materials and methods: The author of this paper analyzed the literature on the subject and performed desk research using data from reports and studies published by EU statistics (Euro stat Statistics) and GUS (Statistics Poland), statistical yearbooks of Europe; WDR reports (Global Financial Development Report 2019/2020) and NBU (Official website of the National Bank of Ukraine).

Results: The author’s research has shown that the process of saving is quite popular for European people is quite popular. Accordingly, in 2019, the residents of Poland, Hungary and Romania were the most frugal – 82%, 84% and 85%. Further attitudes towards savings are the following: Turks (77%), Ukrainians (76%), Croats (75%), Serbs (72%), Germans (73%), while savings are slightly less important for Austrians (70%), Slovaks (67%), Czechs (66%), and Montenegrins (59%). This savings situation has clearly demonstrated the power of effective household decisions for overall political and economic activity in Europe. Finally, the migration capital of Ukraine has a “shadow character” due to, first of all, the desire to minimize the costs of transferring funds home through official channels, as well as distrust of the banking sector in Ukraine.

Conclusions: To increase the efficiency of the formation and use of household savings in Ukraine, it is necessary to increase the interest of citizens in savings by partially or completely exempting from taxation the income directed to accumulation and create the conditions necessary for the implementation of new banking, insurance, and other types of financial services.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main issue of the work is to present the essence of venture capital, i.e. Venture Capital funds and Private Equity funds. The aim of the article is to indicate the size of the share and the role of funds in financing enterprises located in Poland. The time horizon of the presented data covers the years 2012-2019.

Materials and methods: The material for analysis is available statistical data, reports of commercial companies and other entities researching the size of the Venture Capital and Private Equity sector in Poland. For the purposes of the study, the literature on the subject was used as well as the data of: Narodowy Centrum Badań i Rozwoju, KPMG Sp. z o.o., the State Development Fund, the Startup Poland Foundation and the European Association of Venture Capital and Private Equity Investors. The method of analysis and criticism of the literature and the method of examining documents were used.

Results: The research carried out in Poland makes it possible to assess the size of the implemented venture capital investments, i.e. VC and PE funds, over the years 2012-2019. The presented data indicate that the share of funds in financing Polish enterprises has a variable tendency. The percentage share of VC and PE investors in Europe in 2017-2018 is also variable.

Conclusions: The Polish economic market is an attractive investment area in terms of cash allocation needs by venture capital funds. Increasing awareness of enterprise managers about the benefits of using these capitals to subsidize the activities of entrepreneurs allows them to discount VC and PE funds in innovative startups and in other processes, the implementation of which takes place in further phases of the company’s operations. The studies conducted so far cover the entire territory of Poland and are of an overview nature. The VC and PE funds, which are a new financial instrument, allow Polish enterprises to implement innovative projects.

Abstract

In the early 21st century, orchard fruit-growing is one of Poland's most rapidly-growing branches of agriculture. The rate and direction of this process of development have obviously been under the fundamental influence of an European Union Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) binding upon Poland since 2004. A series of changes concerning orchard fruit-growing have been ushered in this way, with production intensifying and spatial reorganisation taking place. The work described here has thus sought to determine changes in the level of output achieved by fruit-growing, as well as changes in the distribution of orchards, during the time over which the CAP's instruments have been exerting their influence on Polish agriculture. Research first concentrated on identification of the key CAP instruments capable of influencing the development of orcharding in Poland. Analyses were then carried out in respect of changes in the level of fruit production and the area devoted to orchard cultivation. Impacts on production, including those manifested in increased exports of fresh fruit, are shown to have helped Poland maintain position on European and world markets, with consequences including an increased area assigned to the growing of the most in-demand fruit (i.e. apples and raspberries), in peripheral regions especially. This can therefore be thought to reflect both growing specialisation in farming, and a way of maintaining some economic vitality in rural areas far from large urban agglomerations.

Abstract

This paper focuses on the multidestination travel of the Slovenian population. It presents the results of a questionnaire survey that aimed to gain insight into some relevant characteristics of the travel behaviour of the Slovenian population and its links to factors that were found in previous research to be related to the incidence of multidestination travel. A destination was defined within this research as any location where an overnight stop is made. Single-destination trips prevailed. Still, a considerable percentage of respondents’ most recent trips had been multidestination trips. The greater part of them was directed to just one country within which they visited several overnight destinations. The results indicate that duration of trip, distance of destination from tourists’ residential location, familiarity of destination, travel-group size and tourists’ activities are associated with the likelihood of multidestination travel.

Abstract

Territorial cohesion, despite its initial ambiguity, has been successfully implemented in national and regional policies across the EU. However, its operationalisation on the local level remains a major challenge. This paper asks whether pedestrian accessibility of services and public transport nodes can be used as a measure of territorial cohesion at the local level. The presented research was conducted in 2016–19 in five neighbourhoods in Poland representing various settlement contexts: large cities, mediumsized towns and suburban areas. It adapted particular indicators of territorial cohesion established by ESPON to the neighbourhood scale. The highest levels of territorial cohesion expressed by users’ satisfaction were achieved in a neighbourhood in a medium-sized town, whereas in geographical terms, territorial cohesion reached higher levels in large cities. Despite those differences, the proposed research method based on pedestrian accessibility offers quantifiable and comparable results on territorial cohesion on the neighbourhood level.

Abstract

The concept of spatial justice relates to the fair and equitable distribution in space of socially valued resources and opportunities. In other words, spatial justice is the spatial dimension of social justice, placing more emphasis on the geography of distribution. On this basis, this paper examines the innovation ecosystem of the Alexander Innovation Zone of Thessaloniki in Greece. What is attempted is to scrutinise, through the lens of spatial justice, this state's initiative to deal at the regional level with innovation. This paper investigates whether a focus on localities and decentralisation would be better able to deliver the demands of spatial justice. The hypothesis to be tested is that equity in socially valued resources and opportunities can be better achieved through place-based strategies. Based upon empirical material, within the framework of the RELOCAL project (H2020, www.relocal.eu), this contribution attempts to shed some light on the aforementioned research hypothesis.

Abstract

Eight former communist countries joined the European Union in 2004, and since then they have become popular party tourism destinations. In connection with social and economic transformations following the fall of communism, public spaces with the densest concentration of clubs were formed in the centres of big cities. Such a space can be called a “party zone”. This paper presents such zones delimited in Polish cities and attempts to investigate changes in those zones in 2004–17 (and thus, after accession to the EU). An additional objective was to identify the most popular clubs based on information from social media and from interviews with DJs. The results lead to two main conclusions: (a) three main types of party zones can be identified in the analysed cities taking into account their form and relationship to urban space; (b) in 2004–17 the preferences of club-goers changed in favour of open air clubs.

Abstract

This work presents the results of research on the identification of types of Polish agriculture. Polish gminas (the third-order administrative division of the country sometimes referred to as “communes” or “municipalities”, until 2016 – according to Local Administrative Units – LAU level 2) have been divided into three types, characterised by low, medium or high levels of agricultural development, with 10 sub-types. A multi-stage typological procedure was used, employing two classification methods: k-mean cluster analysis and the random forest method. Twelve diagnostic attributes were used that comprehensively characterise Polish agriculture. The results show the diversity of this sector of the economy, which should be taken into account when planning its future development.