In the famous “anti-Commons” theory, resources are underused when multiple owners are endowed with the right to exclude other potential users, in contrast to the “Commons” theory that identifies resource over-exploitation. In this crucial preliminary study, “Intestate Succession” (i.e. “Succession without Will”) is under investigation, thus evaluating whether the number of land cotenants (heirs, in “Intestate Succession”) affects significantly (or not) land market values, by taking into account certain significant economic variables, representing the whole population official and primary data, officially available from the municipal Serres Farmlands. Applying advanced GLM, we perform ANCOVA analysis, considering as dependent variable the market land value. We find that, controlling for the objective land value (IRS land value), location, irrigation, farmer identity, and land segmentation-fragmentation all affect significantly the market land value variable. Significantly, the number of heirs does not seem to be a significant factor yet in the context of the “anti-Commons” theory.
The aim of the research is to determine if the audit fees are statistically significantly different between the audit companies and vary, depending on the size of client and audit company. We find that for large auditees the average audit fees of the Big 4 Group did not statistically significantly deviate from normative audit fees, even surpass them, but not statistically significant. On average, small audit firms when auditing large auditees do not meet the predicted normative audit fees, and this deviation is statistically significant. Also, we confirm that the Big 4 auditing companies (KPMG, E & Y, Deloitte and PwC) were, statistically, significantly more likely to charge higher audit fees than a small auditing company would charge. The paper contributes to the literature to give users a clear indication about what average audit fees are typical of the Slovenian audit companies and which audit company is at the forefront.
The main aim of this paper is to investigate the existence of the “day of the week” financial effect in select Balkans stock markets indices. Many findings of market anomalies have corroborated the presence of the “day of the week” effect in developed markets; however, so far scarce research has been presented on this subject for the Balkan capital markets. Hence, an additional objective of this paper is to examine the impact of this market anomaly on the market efficiency hypothesis. The methodology used in this paper employs a regression including dummy variables which will help determine the existence of the effect. The authors use daily mean returns of selected stock indices found to be lower at the beginning of the week but not necessarily on Monday. The results are interpreted and expounded taking into consideration the history and market development. The paper provides academia and investors as well as policy makers new perspective of the market anomalies linked to the financial behavior of the capital markets in select Balkan countries.
European interest rates movements are affected by various internal and external factors. This paper studies the link between European and American short- and long-term interest rates. In particular, we consider the forward interest rates coming from euro and dollar IRS term structures. The econometric techniques employed are co-integration, Granger-causality, OLS and GMM. Our results indicate that European remote settlement forward and long-term interest rates are primarily driven by US rates and confirm that the causality acts mainly from the US to the Eurozone. This was true even during the recent periods of European Central Bank quantitative easing. These factors weaken the ECB’s ability to intervene. In fact, we found the impact of American monetary policy on long-term interest rates to be also relevant for European bonds.
Organisational justice is a key component in the practice of human resources management in any work environment. The aim of this research survey is to highlight the meaning and importance of organisational justice and its impact on employee engagement. To achieve this aim, except for the literature review, the survey examines the extent to which the distributive, procedural and interactional justice impact on work and organisational engagement, through a research in a certain Greek public organisation. As regards the statistical analysis of the research hypotheses, we used methods of the SPSS 17.00 statistical package. The results showed that the distributive justice significantly impacts on both types of engagement, while no effect was detected between procedural justice and the two types of engagement. The interactional justice was found to determine, partly, only the organisational engagement. The findings overwhelmingly verified the existing bibliographical references, resulting in a noteworthy empirical precedent which could contribute to the field concerning the impact that organisational justice exerts on certain aspects of organisational behaviour.
In this paper, we provide a cross-industry perspective on the market reaction to different corporate news in the context of Indian stock market. We have studied the price and volume movements associated with eight broadly defined news categories namely Analyst Calls, Earnings, Earnings Forecasts, Finance, Legal and Regulatory, Management, Operations and Restructuring. We have employed the standard event study methodology on a sample of stocks listed on the National Stock Exchange of India for the purpose of our study. We observe that the market reaction to firm specific corporate news varies according to the type of news across different industry groups. We also observe that the sentiment of the news is a critical factor which influences the market reaction to such news flow across industry groups. We also provide a cross-industry perspective on the relative importance of different corporate news categories after taking into account the sentiment of the news in the context of Indian stock market.
Critics concerning the real impact of traditional microfinance as a tool for poverty alleviation are becoming frequent. In contrast, the financial crisis brought out interest for Islamic finance, whose models have been increasingly studied. Today, the real challenge lies in evaluating the impact of microfinance in a complex environment, where both Islamic and conventional microfinance institutions exist and address evolving clients in constant interaction. New methods and models are therefore needed in order to test the efficacy and assess the impact of introducing Islamic microfinance products, compared to the conventional system. In this context, this paper proposes an approach to build an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) framework, which is aiming to test the effects of such products implementation using Islamic interest-free group loans. It also helps assess the impact of the behavioral biases as well as agents’ interactions within the repayment process.
This research aims to test the fiscal dominance hypothesis for Pakistan through a bivariate structural vector auto regression (SVAR) specification, covering time period 1977 – 2016. This study employs real primary deficit (non interest government expenditures minus total revenues) and real primary liabilities (sum of monetary base and domestic public debt) as indicators of fiscal measures and monetary policy respectively. A structural VAR is retrieved both for entire sample period and four sub periods (1977 – 1986, 1987 – 1997, 1998 – 2008, and 2009 – 2016). This study identifies the presence of fiscal dominance for the entire sample period and the sub period from 1987 – 2008. The estimates reveal an interesting phenomenon that fiscal dominance is significant in the elected regimes and weaker in the presence of military regimes in Pakistan. From a policy perspective, this research suggests increased autonomy of central bank to achieve long term price stability and reduced administration costs to ensure efficient democratic regime in Pakistan.
The focus of the presented research is attitude and loyalty to two brands of beer produced by the Carlsberg Group – Tuborg and Carlsberg. Both beers are lagers. The Carlsberg Group markets Tuborg as a more premium brand, and it also aims to promote it to women. Unlike in the Netherlands with one brand – Heineken and unlike in the Czech Republic with many well-known brands by a multitude of producers, the Danish case gives a unique opportunity to investigate if customers truly prefer one of two brands or are approximately equally low with regards to both brands as it is produced by the same company and tastes very similarly (if not the same). The survey was conducted in Denmark. Respondents were Danish (not international) university students; such selection was done in order to ensure familiarity of respondents with both brands.
The decrease of the business property can cause a reduction in the production ability of the enterprise to the extent causing an involuntary closing of business activities. It is usually caused not only by the reported loss, but also by the greater distribution of profits, as is the amount of the real level of the enterprise's distributable profit. A thorough analysis of the reported accounting profit described in this paper should be the starting point for the allocation of profit. It is important to be able to identify and assign a portion of the accounting profit, corresponding to the non-realised profit and fictitious profit, where eventual release outside the enterprise threatens the future performance of the enterprise. These portions of the reported profit do not correspond to the actually made, realised and real production, which is a necessary condition to achieve a real profit to possible safety division to investors.