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The social attention of today's world, in continuous transformation, is focused above all on the education and education of the elderly. Taking into account the fact that the lifestyles of elders around the world are tuned to European ones, this article aims to shed light on the life of the elderly in Russia, their education and education. Nowadays, having an active lifestyle means - for the elderly - to be strengthened by sport, by the possession of digital skills, by socializing with relatives, friends and peer groups, as well as by travel and work. Creating oneself through curious thought towards all that is information about the world increases one's knowledge and contributes to the maintenance of physical and mental form. The awareness of living life by forming and educating oneself dynamically favours, in the elderly, a constant search for the self and a desire to experience oneself by adhering ever more to new initiatives. Unfortunately, in Russia, there are still many older people whose existential situation could be characterized by the concept of “social closure”. This situation is due, for the most part, to the unfavourable climatic conditions, poor health and severe economic conditions. Becoming active pensioners, however, is possible, “bypassing” the obstacles aimed at the destruction of the “critical self”. It would, therefore, be necessary to begin to consider themselves as a great Russian “old heritage” so that, soon, the trained eyes of “lovers” can establish their priceless value.


The Senior Universities (US) in Portugal are socio-educational organisations, of non-formal education, officially recognised by the Resolution of the Council of Ministers nº 76/2016. According to the National Network of Senior Universities (RUTIS), there were 330 US in Portugal with a total of 45,000 senior students in 2019.

Since the beginning of the US, computer education has been one of the most sought after topics for seniors. In 2018, 62% of students attended a course related to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). This teaching has gone through three phases in the US that we will present.

In the study carried out by the author to 1,016 senior students from all over the country, it was possible to conclude that the frequency of the US contributed a great deal to diminish digital illiteracy and that it is in the older and less literate public that these contributors are more visible. It was also possible to realise that most US students have smartphones and laptops and understand the evolution that the use of computers has had in the US.


This paper discusses the importance of foreign language learning as a means of maintaining healthy cognitive, psychological and social functioning in elderly people. It argues that a complex cognitive activity involving multiple skills and stimulating extensive neural networks can greatly contribute to contrast the inception of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and other types of dementia. Because of age-related physical and mental limitations, and because old learners find it hard to abandon tried-and-tested methodologies and attitudes, it is, however, crucial that teachers and educators try to meet the older adult’s needs by customising teaching procedures and learning environment to their requirements and expectations. Rather than introducing a great amount of new information and learning techniques, it may be much more fruitful to encourage the older adult to retrieve and rely on previously acquired knowledge and consolidated learning strategies. The adoption of computer-assisted language learning, however, may be helpful and motivating for older learners, provided technological demands are kept to a minimum.


The relevance of the research topic is due to the following circumstances: firstly, repeating the European trend, the labor supply in the Russian labor market is characterized by increase in the cohort of people aged 60 years and older, which negatively affects the indicators of economic growth and, in the context of the transformation of labor legislation, strengthens the scientific interest in the problem of aging employees and prolonging their working capacity;

secondly, in modern foreign and Russian studies there is no uniform idea of the signs of classifying workers as older working age, which makes it difficult to conduct a comparative analysis and disseminate effective international experience to solve the employment problem, taking into account demographic realities;

thirdly, in the theory and practice of labor economics there is no well-formed idea of a system of factors that influence the success of older working age workers, which affects the quality of the development of promising areas and methods of their use;

fourthly, when the risk factor in the work with personnel is indicated in the profile economic literature, its assessment regarding employees of older able-bodied growth has not been developed;

fifthly, in modern studies there is no effective mechanism to increase the success of older working age workers, taking into account the specifics of achieving the effectiveness of their work, taking into account competence, involvement and possible risks.

The purpose of the study is to develop theoretical concepts and methodological provisions on the professional success of older workers and the mechanism for its increase in the Russian labour market, taking into account risk factors.

The subject of the study is the social and labor relations evolving over the implementation of a mechanism to increase the success of older working age workers.

In the research process, general scientific methods of cognition were used, as well as methods of economic-statistical, systemic correlation analysis, expert estimation, the results of opinion polls, tabular and graphical interpretation of empirical and factual information.


As in other countries, Ukraine has persistent ageing stereotypes, with old age associated with wealth reduction, financial instability and social exclusion. Shifting these negative attitudes to active-ageing and seniors’ inclusion requires a systematic challenge. Not so long times ago the majority of people in their third age were unaware of active-ageing or expressed scepticism about the feasibility of creating an age-friendly community in Ukraine. Since the large-scale integration of Ukrainian UTAs into the EU agenda for intellectual, economic and social progress of society and individuals regardless of age, the changes in lifelong activities and participation in personally and socially meaningful ways for seniors caused a new outlook for them involving active vitality and optimism, confidence in intelligence, personal and social inclusion.

This publication is devoted to the analysis of possible road ahead for the age-friendly community in Ukraine, negative stereotyping towards senior people from the side of business and individuals. The main goal is introducing methodology, practices and tools for the successful performance of initiative for age-friendly compass in Ukraine aimed to measure ageism in society.


Given the growth in the number of senior universities in Portugal and Brazil, we think it is important to know the audience which frequents these institutions, their motivations, the health impact and whether there are significant differences between the two countries. The authors have created a survey that was applied in person in Portugal and the State of Goiás in Brazil. With this study, it was possible to trace the profile of the students who attend the Senior Universities (US or U3A) in Portugal and universities open to Seniors (UNATI) in Brazil. We also added a study on volunteer teachers in the Portuguese US.

We now know that are essentially women, aged 60-75 years and of all social and educational levels. As for the motives are essentially the conviviality, get active and learn. No significant differences were found between the two countries, in groups and in the motivations, with exception to the marital status and the number of courses attended.


Environmental fragility in a mining area is evaluated both in terms of its biophysical (natural) and socio-economic components and their anthropogenic interactions. We identified multiple criteria and indicators for this task, but then reduced these according to responses given by 60 experts in domains related to spatial planning. We used the selected criteria and indicators to develop environment fragility indices for each territorial administrative unit (LAU2) in Gorj County in south-western Romania. The resulting indices reveal quite large spatial variations in fragility and evidence that highly fragile human and physical environments are to some extent intertwined. In this respect, such environmental components as climate, soils, ecosystems, natural hazards and economic issues provide constraints on human activities, whilst humans themselves can, without sufficient care, increase fragility and adversely affect the quality of living environments for present and future generations. We also explore how such estimates of natural and anthropogenic fragility might enable better specific planning for local and regional development that aims to ameliorate both environmental and human adversity in an integrated way.


The Czech Republic has been developing its motorway network since the 1970s, while efforts to upgrade its railway system from the 1990s have been limited to improvements of existing major lines. Only recently has the government decided to construct new “speed connection” rail lines. This article investigates the possible territorial benefits from the future development of planned motorways and of various speed connection railway options. The modelling is based on Huff’s gravity model that calculates the benefits from improved accessibility, to job and service centres for residents of each municipality. The modelling outcomes are used to compare planned motorway development and rail development options with respect to their efficiency, related to the investment and potential numbers of users.


Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the study is to determine the variables determining the level of synthetic measure of economic efficiency in listed companies of the industry sector as part of their enterprise life cycle.

Materials and methods: The article uses data from annual unitary financial statements of industrial enterprises according to the classification of the Warsaw Stock Exchange and data describing the macroeconomic situation of the state economy. The research period covered the years 1999-2012. In order to examine which factors determine the level of economic efficiency at each stage of the life cycle of enterprises, estimation of econometric models was carried out.

Results: In the models obtained for companies in the growth and maturity stage, statistically significant determinants were obtained only in the field of internal factors. In the models estimated for companies in the stages of launch, shake-out and decline, statistically significant conditions were identified, both in terms of external factors and in the area of internal factors.

Conclusions: A comprehensive assessment of the conditions for the level of economic efficiency of enterprises should take into account both factors dependent on the enterprise (microeconomic) as well as those determined by the environment (macroeconomic) and beyond its control. It is therefore necessary for managers of enterprises to have extensive and up-to-date knowledge of factors and conditions that are significant in shaping the level of economic efficiency.


Subject and purpose of work: The subject of analysis and evaluation are foreign direct investments (FDI) in Poland with particular emphasis on the Lublin Voivodship as a peripheral region. The aim of the paper is to present the investment attractiveness of the voivodship, the state of investment and ways to enhance the investment attractiveness of the region.

Materials and methods: This paper is based on statistical data from the Central Statistical Office (GUS), the National Bank of Poland (NBP) and other institutions, as well as published literature of this topic.

Results: This paper presents theoretical foundations of foreign investments, characteristics of the inflow of foreign direct investments to Poland in the years 2000-2017, their origin and directions of their use and distribution in the country. FDI is presented in detail in Lublin Voivodship, which is considered to be a peripheral region of Poland and the European Union.

Conclusions: FDI inflow to Poland was uneven in time, and investments were concentrated in the Masovian Voivodship and a few other voivodships of Western and Central Poland. Lublin Voivodship, despite activities increasing its investment attractiveness, still has unused opportunities for application of foreign investments.