This paper aims to analyses the trends and dynamics of extreme poverty in developing countries. The study attempts to answer one critical question: has the world achieved its number one Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing extreme poverty by half by 2015? The methodology used in this study mainly involves a descriptive data analysis during the period 1981-2015. The study used the World Bank’s US$1.90 a day line (popularly known as $1 a day line) in 2011 prices to measure the level of absolute poverty. In order to analyze the dynamics of poverty across different regions, the study grouped countries into five regions: i) sub-Saharan Africa; ii) East Asia and the Pacific; iii) South Asia; iv) Europe and Central Asia; and v) Latin America and the Caribbean. The study found that in 1990, there were around 1.9 billion people living below US$1.90 a day (constituting 36.9 percent of the world population) and this number is estimated to have reduced to around 700 million people in 2015, with an estimated global poverty rate of 9.6 percent. The world met the MDG target in 2010, which is five years ahead of schedule. However, extreme poverty is becoming increasingly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA), where its depth and breadth remain a challenge. SSA remains the poorest region, with more than 35 percent of its citizens living on less than US$1.90 a day. Half of the world’s extremely poor people now live in SSA, and it is the only region which has not met its MDG target.
In this paper a novel approach on knowledge integration in presented in the context of the knowledge-based society/economy (KBS/E). What this paper brings new is the transdisciplinary integrative approach of the knowledge through the “conceptual knowledge space” as a potentiality, and the “practical transdisciplinary knowledge space”, as actuality, with the transition between them through the included middle. Are introduced some of the most important practical educational environmental transdisciplinary conceptual and applied spaces, as innovative groundbreaking clusters that foster the origination, transfer and implementation of knowledge in the process of achieving sustainable development of the continuously integrative society. The University is considered the most appropriate space for this transdisciplinary approach of knowledge achievement, being a natural habitat of the synergistic integration of education, research and industry, and with its adaptability and adequateness in the knowledge economy space. University should become an open space in a reconfiguration in a integration of a highrequired degree with breadth profile competence in the integrated fields of different disciplines, with the need to have a depth profile of the knowledge in research on particular cognitive field. A new redefined mission of university by collaborating with industry should be linked to a redefinition of the role of the research in universities in the knowledge based society/economy.
Petroleum is the most important resource for global energy production, far exceeding the role of coal and natural gas, the role of river energy and wind energy, and also the role of nuclear fuel.
All highly industrialized countries are making great efforts to ensure the energy needs of the functioning of economies under the conditions of fierce global competition. None of the world’s first 10-12 economies can give up on petroleum imports, and the exporting countries benefit from large financial resources from petroleum.
Saudi Arabia, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Russia and other petroleum-rich countries secure themselves significant foreign revenue for their economic development, defense and overall well-being.
Buying decisions are determined by two key factors: endogenous factor that belongs to the buyer (which is present at least the attitudinal variable) and exogenous factors such demo-economic, sociological, psychological, marketing mix, linked all more or less by the product or the service offered for purchase and consumption. The study aims to use Rasch’s model to express the likelihood that a consumer will make the decision to purchase a higher educational service. Applied to item solving, Rasch probabilistic model, on which the research methodology study is largely supported, states that the probability of success in solving an item depends on two factors. The one belongs to that who solves the item - the human factor, called the latent trait, and the other belongs to the item, called the facility of the item The purchase decision approach using the Rasch model results validity is mainly based on the isometry of the two situations The results of the study describe behavioral probability situations where customers who make university education services purchasing decisions can themselves be found. We recommend the educational marketing strategies based on the analysis made on the applied model, which may increase the students’ enrolled number in a particular university.
Throughout this study, we have shown the influence factors generating a significant impact on taxpayers’ tax behavior. We also analyzed the literature in the field, and the categories of factors that have a significant influence. Consequently, we have assigned a macroeconomic indicator in Romania, in an attempt to quantify the factors of influence. In this regard, we have built an econometric model of multifactorial regression and we have determined the impact of some elements such as: poverty, labor productivity, population confidence in state authorities, gross domestic product per capita on fiscal behavior, which was estimated through the proxy variable: tax rate. The empirical results obtained as a result of the multiple regression showed that there is a negative correlation between the fiscal behavior of the taxpayer, namely the tax compliance and the financial capacity, the labor productivity and the confidence the taxpayer has in the state authorities, while the behavior of the taxpayer the gross domestic product per capita we identify a positive correlation.
The analysis and determination of typologies of tourism consumers has been a major concern for scientists, specialists and companies as well. Knowing the demographic and motivational factors that determine consumers to buy tourism products can have a major impact on the marketing strategy by a more efficient targeting of customers. This article presents the results of a research that aims to determine the factors which influence the buying decision for tourism products and the clusters of consumers resulted from these factors. 90 persons have been surveyed pursuing the determination of the most important factors for buying a tourism product and the correlation between them. The factor analysis and the cluster analysis have been applied with the help of the SPSS program. The results of the factor analysis group the items into six factors. In a second phase, the consumers have been divided into three categories based on a hierarchical Ward cluster analysis. The three clusters have been defined and analyzed and recommendations for the future research have been given.
Intelligent innovation represents any autonomic change with positive impact to the customer. They increase the comfort of the customer and concurrently they represent more effective, more economical, healthier and safer solution. This term is not so usual in Slovakia, however intelligent innovation are present on the market. For that in the article intelligent innovation assessment, we focused on intelligent and active packaging, the occurrence of which we have mostly noticed on the Slovak market. The paper deals with the evaluation of the perception of packaging innovations by using the Kano model. According to research results, intelligent and active packaging influence customers and therefore constitutes a tool of competitiveness in Slovakia. However, considering the specification of their requirements, the degree of impact is very variable and specific to customers of different gender and age.
The economic crisis, demography, technology, globalization etc. are all factors which will influence the organizational structures and business strategies. A new business strategy will require, among others, that passive Human Resources Management (HRM) change into an active one with a decisive influence upon business. The vision of an active HRM requires that HR information (IT) dedicated systems assist human resources managers in their decision-making. The existing IT systems predominantly manage the salary calculations and, possibly, the employee's professional development, two of the tasks that a human resources manager has to pursue. However, tasks such as assisting, consulting and engaging the human resources in the organization are equally important. IT systems must also develop into these directions. The present paper proposes a solution to measure the performance of human resources by creating an employee performance indicator (EPI). The paper first describes the economic phenomenon involved in the HR performance process, then the mathematical model is formulated, the algorithm is implemented, the solution of the model is analysed from a technical and economic point of view, and finally the decision is made. We use the weighted arithmetic mean to compute the EPI indicator and the correlation formula to establish the degree of relevance between the EPI indicator and the variables involved in the model. An implementation in R is given.
The pension system, together with the social assistance services form the social security system is recognized worldwide throughout the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for the purpose of insured person compensation for damages regarding some inherent risks as: permanent or temporary inability of work, old age or unemployment. The main objectives of a pension system are decreasing poverty regarding the lower income persons throughout the conditions of limitation of the working capacity which are financially vulnerable. In this article we provide a qualitative and quantitative overview regarding the Romanian pension system structure and mechanism. The conclusions of this article highlight the need for a more comprehensive reform of this system in order to strengthen it for the new challenges still to come in the near future.
Considering the potential factors that might generate economic growth, a target for any economy, this paper identified some determinants of economic growth in the countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries) that are member states of the European Union. The foreign direct investment was the most important determinant of economic growth in most of the countries (Bulgaria, Slovenia, Estonia, Hungary, Romania, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania) in the period 2003-2016, according to Bayesian bridge regressions. The indicators related to the level and the quality of labour resources proved to be insignificant in explaining the economic growth in these countries. Moreover, in Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, the government expenditure on education had a negative effect on economic growth.