The release of Ilya Khrzhanovsky’s megalomaniacal cinematic project DAU coincided with the global Covid-19 pandemic. With festivals postponed and public screenings no longer possible, Khrzhanovsky moved his project online, integrating the unprecedented experience of the global lockdown and quarantine into the cinematic universe of DAU. Using the concept of heterotopia devised by French philosopher Michel Foucault, this paper examines the ways in which self-isolation altered the conditions of spatio-temporal engagement with DAU. Ultimately, the paper presents an original theoretical model of heterotopic cinema to demonstrate that confinement is precisely what allows Khrzhanovskiy’s artistic method to fully function.
Hamlet is the play that has ignited the most numerous polemics, and about the Prince of Denmark and his madness, may it be considered real or acted out, thousands of pages have been written. “Hamlet is the absolute character. No other author has ever managed to create something with such a spectacular status. He is an enigma, the only one that has never given anyone the chance to fully decipher it, not one from all the people that had ever come close to it.”1 Hamlet- the actor and the director, this is the perspective from which one will seek answers by following the text and certain unique directorial approaches. One analyzed the monologue from the second scene of the third act. In this “theatre lesson”, one can find guidelines on acting, but also on directing, pieces of advice that are valid today. Hamlet is one of the characters with the most monologues, pages and pages of words that cover the same dilemma – To be or not to be. One proposes to follow the acting lesson, but also the play-within-the-play scene, as they are connected from the actors’ and directors’ perspectives. The monologue presents strict guidelines for actors/directors, exemplifying them, and in the scene of the performance one can notice whether the “lesson” was truly efficient or not. One will follow this specific path in certain productions, considered as being unique.
The theatre of Robert Pinget was acclaimed at the Avignon Festival till the 1980s, until it became in spite of itself a representative of the theatrical avant-garde greeted by numerous critics and academic texts. It appears, however, that Pinget’s theatre was the victim of a real misinterpretation. Adventurous life, where romance and destiny mingle, lay the foundations of pingétienne irony, this search for personal tone subjects to uncertainties and other contradictions Robert Pinget’s affiliation with Max Jacob’s is an attempt to approach the avant-garde, but to turn away from it in a subtle way in the last moment. This waltz-hesitation of Pinget will be the basis of a tendency to put this work in the “new novel” or the theatrical avant-garde. The literature of Pinget can be considered as a form of the art of the escape the expression of an incessantly renewed amazement through an acousmatic voice. It is through the theory of the double and the quest for secrecy that we can now reposition Pinget’s theater in the perspective of a classical theater on the very margins of the avant-garde and a striking example of an ontological incomprehension between adaptation and the message left by the author.
The main purpose of this paper was to explore the media image of the COVID-19 pandemic through the perspective of Polish media polarisation. In order to achieve this, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the content of covers from 10 socio-political magazines, representing different ideological inclinations [left-wing, liberal, conservative, right-wing and Catholic] was conducted between January and June 2020. The study focused not only on the scale to which the coronavirus appeared on the covers, but also on the textual and visual representation of it. Additionally, the contexts in which COVID-19 appeared were analysed. As it turned out, apart from the medical context, the pandemic was mostly presented through political, social, economic and religious perspectives, of which the first was the most visibly connected with polarising media content, indicating clear links between the ideological bias of the magazines and the ways they described reality.
Maurice Maeterlinck, the author of some of the plays associated with the symbolist aesthetic, in which the character is often an unseen presence associated to destiny or death, writes in the first part of his career a collection of dramas in which the heroines seem to appear each time under different guises. At the end of his career, Maeterlinck returns to the mysterious universe proposed in his first text – The Princess Maleine, finishing the circle of love dramas, the dramas of the profound self discovery. The princess Isabelle comes and claims the unfulfillment of her sisters from the previous texts, which she afterwards saves. The obsession of the water, a lethal substance for most of Maeterlinck’s heroines, becomes for Isabelle the unconscious need for purification. Being the last text published during this author’s life, it contains within its structure fragments from almost all his previous work, and thus there is a certain continuity and unity between the obscurity of this author’s beginnings and the light of revelation which precedes the great travel to the unknown.
This paper intends to deal with the problem of transcending the limit from the performing arts perspective. To achieve this goal, we proceed to an analysis of the concept of limit from both philosophical and theatrical perspectives. There is a wide range of possible definitions of limit as the concept in itself turns out to be ambiguous. To reflect upon different ways of surpassing the limit firstly requires the identification and investigation of the meanings of the concept of limit which is to be surpassed. Some examples of going beyond the limit in the theatre are briefly reviewed.
In the digital game industry, micro-transactions (MTXs) have been introduced as a new vehicle for profit generation. MTXs are small sum payments for additional virtual content beyond the content players obtain through game-play and progression, which impose new structural limitations and opportunities for game participation on the players. This article explores the perspectives of players on corporate commodification strategies of gameplay. The empirical work consists of semi-structured focus group interviews of players and interviews of podcast hosts. All informants are players of various online games.
By adopting Sayer’s (2004, 2007, 2017) concept of moral economy and de Certeau’s (2011) concept of tactics in everyday life, this study draws two conclusions. First, virtual items and goods obtained through in-game activities or MTXs are a means to communicate skill level, taste, and experience between players as a fundamental part of the moral economy of establishing fair ground for competition. With regard to MTXs, players distinguish among three levels in which agency is maintained or limited. Second, players negotiate these models of commodification and agency limitation in ambivalent ways, both resisting and embracing economic values in the moral economy of play. Furthermore, because of this negotiation, players are generally concerned about the invasive nature of economic values taking priority over the values that guide the practices of play. In other words, there is a moral concern regarding how norms and values in play are compromised or overridden by outside economic pressures.
This essay discusses the global context of public communication during COVID-19, as well as some specific lessons learned from public service media (PSM), specifically from the Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yleisradio, Yle). We address the role of PSM as a national information channel during crises and as a sustainable element in the media system, points to the need to understand its role beyond news and to develop new interactive alternatives to global platforms, and calls for PSM organisations to address its audience – not as consumers – but as people with needs for information, entertainment, learning and meaningful interactions.
Two categories of limitations are identified in the performing arts: physical, on the one hand, and those related to the intellectual and emotional predispositions of artists, on the other. Physical boundaries, in turn, are divided into material barriers - for example, the type of performing space and its dimensions - and the constraints generated by the anatomy and morphology of each artist. The experience had at the Vasile Alecsandri National Theater, in Iaşi, is evoked, while insisting on the importance of the actors’ abilities to go through the different states of mind that accompany various ages of man. The discussion of limitations involves the discussion of the new. The contribution of new stage technologies to the evolution of theater is recorded. It is briefly described, in context, the experience facilitated by the show Planet of Lost Dreams, in order to advocate for the avoidance of the unwarranted use of means such as video projections, the Internet, etc. The challenges posed by the mix of 3D and 2D images are noted. The view is advanced that the total absence of limitations, as well as their formal treatment can block the development of the theater.
This essay will examine the role of publicly-funded film funds in small nations during the pandemic. Organisation like Det Danske Filminstitut, Hrvatski Audiovizualni Centar, Screen Scotland and Screen Ireland exist to support filmmakers in the realisation of their creative vision, to aid the circulation of national cultural resources and to provide audiences with the opportunity to access a diverse array of films. In small nations they are often the primary source of funding to the sector and so play a key role in building the capacity and international visibility of the nation and its film output.
This contribution to the special issue will identify trends in the funding and support provided by these organisations during the crisis; for instance, in adjusting their funding strategies, but also in their advocacy efforts with those beyond the film sector to secure financial support measures for the sector. It identifies future roles for film funds including redistributing limited public funds, supporting creative labour markets that are sustainable and equitable, and communicating the message to international productions, potential co-producers and investors that the country and its sector is open for business. I conclude by also reflecting on the long-term threats that these bodies may themselves face in the coming years as a result of economic and political transformations that are occurring today.