Turkish livestock sector plays very important role in the Turkish GDP and the use of manure affects the environment but the farming sector want the farmers to employ the use of more integrated manure practice. The study assessed the economic impacts of integrated manure and chemical fertilizer used and the manure management practices sustainable for Turkish agriculture. Turkey is dependent on foreign countries not only for energy but for chemical fertilizers raw materials. High price of chemical fertilizers is one of the negative impact, manure substitution will lead to stable macro-economy, and environmental friendly economy and agricultural productivity will also impacts. To achieve these impacts, some manure practices suitable for sustainable rural development in Turkey was assessed.
The present paper analyzes the extreme variabilities of rainfall and runoff regime within vulnerable hydrographic river basins, focused on a case study: Elan river basin, year 2016. This year, due to excess rainfall, the Elan River basin was affected by torrential rainfall, warned against by orange and red code hydrological forecasts. For this reason, this study makes an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of the surface runoff also considering the main flood events occurring in this river basin. The impact of liquid precipitation on the surface runoff will be highlighted by a statistical analysis of the relationship between monthly average flows and the sum of monthly precipitation in the river basin. The monthly flows series from the Murgeni and Poșta Elan hydrometric stations were capitalized through appropriate statistical analyses. Maximum flows were reported to the thresholds values corresponding to the Defense Levels.
This paper analyses the floristic biodiversity of weed communities in the arable lands of the Istrian peninsula during a twelve year period (2005–2017). A total of 50 fields were surveyed for each sampling time using the seven-degree Braun-Blanquet cover abundance scale in the following agricultural categories: a) permanent crops (vineyards/olive groves), b) alfalfa fields, c) cereals, d) row crops and e) ruderal areas. The taxonomic identification was performed during the full development of vegetation, for cereals in June and July, and for the rest – in August and September. A total of 175 weed species were determined during both study periods with Asteraceae and Poaceae families as the most abundant. Altogether, therophytes were dominant in both surveys, followed by hemycryptophytes and geophytes. Variations in species composition were visible in both study periods (2005 and 2017) as well as in the selected habitat types. Exclusive species were found in addition to those that were common for both surveys. Changes in species composition between 2005 and 2017 referred to the difference in row spacing in earlier period, and ruderal vs. agricultural habitats in the recent survey. The differences in phenological traits between the past and present surveys were greatest for germination season in permanent crops and row crops, flowering start for permanent crops, flowering period for ruderal area and weed height for permanent crops. Significant differences between the past and present survey for other plant traits did not occur.
Since the 1960s of the 20th century, research on the success of projects have been updated and are increasing in cyclical projects (event-centered projects) which appear regularly in excess of budget, or even sometimes incomplete when the event or subject of their creation is over. Within this context, with the appointment of Constantine as the Arab Capital of Culture 2015, the Algerian Government has registered 76 rehabilitation projects for the old buildings of the city, under the guardianship of the Ministry of Culture. The last has designated the Office National de Gestion et d’Exploitation des Biens Culturels Protégés (OGEBCP) (National Office for the Management and Exploitation of Preserved Cultural Property) as a contracting authority assistant, given its considerable experience in building management in the city of Tlemcen, Capital of Islamic Culture in 2011. During our investigation, none of the selected projects has been completed, while the allocated budget has been entirely consumed. Why? Who is responsible for this failure? Our role is to investigate the weak links in these rehabilitation projects to avoid future similar failure. It seems like the success of a project depends on the behavior of the main actors responsible for it as well as a number of technical skills that seem difficult to bring together in a single individual. Therefore, we focus on the actors of the project. The process of conservation operations is a delicate one to conduct for the success of the project. The conditioning of shorter deadlines in full eventcentered projects is in fact one of the most difficult challenges. We propose to analyze the management of communication between the project actors assuming that, an inappropriate management could have negative impacts on the success
Trend analysis for potential evapotranspiration (PET) and climatic water balance (CWB) is critical in identifying the particulate matter concentration (PM10) variations. The PET is computed based on the monthly average temperature for the Ciuc basin using Thornthwaite parameterization. The highest levels of evapotranspiration appear during the months of May and June. The lowest levels of particulate concentration characterize the period during April-June. Precipitation is highest during May and June. Particulate matter in the highest cloud water is 0.014 µg/m3/mm during April and 0.010 µg/m3/mm during May. One can observe a significant level of negative correlation between particulate matter concentration, the potential evapotranspiration and precipitation.
In recent decades, detrimental effects of roads have been the focus of numerous studies. Roadways have various negative effects, such as habitat fragmentation, noise and air pollution, on bird communities. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of traffic noise on the bird’s abundance during autumn period. Field operations were performed in a forest located parallel to a main high-traffic highway. The bird’s abundance was recorded using a point counting method at 27 points along three transects (65, 335 and 605 m from the road). The counting at each point was conducted every five minutes and repeated once every week (12 times during autumn). Environmental indices including the number of trees with DBH of over 20 cm, the number of standing dead trees, canopy cover percentage and Leq 30 were also measured. A total of 2950 bird belonging to 30 species were observed. The number of dominant species (more than 10) in the area considerably changed as the distance from the road increased. Leq 30 had the greatest correlation coefficient with bird abundance. Therefore, traffic noise has negative effects on the bird’s abundance in this area.
Along with the well-known attributes of mankind's future (sustainable, socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly), the last few years we was witnessing the appearance of a new digital attribute. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the ongoing digital revolution that attempts to put into practice all the benefits of explosive development of digital technologies and associated communication capabilities. The huge amount of information collected by computerized planning, production management, technology risk practice and health hazards monitoring has to serve both economic development, advanced management resources, financial profit, and a better protected environment. The IoT Revolution is in its early stages and its focus is on assuring the associated infrastructure as quickly as possible (hardware, BigData software, sensor systems, protected sensitive data, safe communications). The first results are expected in optimizing and streamlining technologies in the management of non-renewable resources. It is appreciated that by 2030, the value added by IoT will amount to about $14 trillion in industry alone. But it would be a mistake to stop the benefits of IoT there. The authors devise a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Traits) analysis, and evaluate the benefits and risks of aligning environmental/social policies to the IoT, proposing a brevity of measures to ensure that the sustainability is considered in the IoT implementation at all stages and at all levels: enterprise, industrial, geographical area, global region. The IoT vision and mission are presented in light of this approach, strategic objectives and important action directions. It also highlights the ethical issues related to the development of an interconnected world through IoT (where unrestrained access to information is stopped, who and for whose control this access has been made, etc.). The terms IoE (Internet of Environment) and IoS (Internet of Sustainability) are suggested.
Water losses are present in all water supply system pipes. Their parameters and value vary depending on the constructional and functional features of the pipes (diameter, material, pressure, embedding environment, location, position etc.). The phenomenon is present in all water supply systems networks in Romania as well as globally. The water supply pipes within the regional water supply system are located in areas with diversified relief, from plateaus and hills to plains. The studies and researches were carried out in the geographical placement area of the Timişeşti-Iaşi pipeline. The geographic area studied is enclosed in Siret and Prut hydrographic basins. The paper aims to establish a correlation between the detection methods of water leaks from pipes and the areal relief features in Iaşi County. At the same time, it is highlighted the impact of the variation of the geographical relief characteristics on the water loss management on different type of pipes.
The increasing frequency and intensity of climate and weather extremes due to ongoing climate changes can cause major property and infrastructure damage. Mainly representing unforeseen and unavoidable hazards, some environmental and business laws broadly assimilate them as force majeure situations, excepting parties affected by their impact from prior commitments. The present study, debating on the way law courts should broadly address the force majeure clause when objective and accurate evidence is being provided, describes the terms of a legal dispute between the owners of two neighboring buildings which have seriously been damaged by a severe thunderstorm developing over the Bucharest-Otopeni town area, on the 22nd July 2014. Consistent meteorological evidence (weather reports and forecasts, aerological diagrams, radar and satellite images, air-pressure distribution maps, synoptic messages etc.) have been presented to the law court to document, in an unbiased manner, on the extraordinary, external, unforeseen and unavoidable weather event representing the cause of a civil legal dispute. The extent to which the law court may take all these into consideration under the provisions of the force majeure clause is still to be explored.
Land degradation has been recognized as an important environmental threat in the Moldavian Plateau of eastern Romania. This study was designed to estimate the magnitude of land degradation and to review land management in a small catchment in the Central Moldavian Plateau. Several methods were deployed to estimate soil erosion losses, gully distribution, landslide inventory and reservoir sedimentation rates. Results obtained in the study area of 7,766 ha, of which 31% is arable and 32% native forest, show that the mean value of soil losses by water erosion on agricultural land is 19.0 t ha−1y−1. By adding the woodland contribution, this value significantly decreases to 12.8 t ha−1y−1. Then, a large proportion of land (58%) is covered by landslides. Most of them are shallow and dormant (stable), and the active ones form only ~2% of the total landslide area. Siltation rates determined using 137Cs reflect the impact of land management on deposition patterns in reservoirs. Proper conservation measures were applied over a 20-year time-span from 1970-1990. Since 1991 the contour farming system collapsed and returned to the traditional ‘up-and-down slope’ farming system on very small plots.