Research purpose. The aim of the paper is to create a model that allows building an optimal brand portfolio, allowing an organisation to achieve its goals. The created model is based on the bivalent programming theory. A mathematical model of optimum brand portfolio is created based on linear programming with restricting conditions being the maximum acceptable risk level and budget. The basic types of resources and basic types of relations between brands are explained, which are part of the process of brand portfolio optimization.
Design / Methodology / Approach. Knowledge and many years of experience of mainly economic disciplines were used for the selection of characteristics for brand portfolio specified in this article. Our assumptions were based mainly on project portfolio management, operational analysis and linear programming as well as tools and methods of graph theory.
Findings. Brand portfolio management such as creating, planning, organising and then maintaining a successful brand is a costly and long-term process involving effective marketing strategies and decisions. The prerequisite for brand portfolio creation is deciding on the number and type of brands. A properly constructed brand portfolio is a prerequisite for achieving business goals.
Originality / Value / Practical implications. Brand portfolio optimisation requires sufficient attention; however, rather than the selection of the highest number of brands, it should be based on compilation of a set, according to pre-defined priorities, which would provide the best possible means to meet the company’s goals for the current limitations. It should be implemented upon objective rules (in our case maximum allowable risk level and available budget). Frequent changes in the brand portfolio structure are not beneficial since they reduce the ability for the company to achieve its targets and represent excessive use of resources. In addition, qualitative brand characteristics have to be respected in the brand portfolio management, but this was not covered in our research.
Research purpose. There are many reasons for which a growing interest in research and analysis of video game developers is observed. First, it results from attractive high rates of return on investment in this sector. Second, video games developers, in the author’s opinion, constitute a good combination of business and culture which is a ground for development of creative industry. A capital-intensive process of production and the intangibility of video games cause a problem in valuation of developers. Market participants who value future cash flows are in conflict with a historical cost approach used in accounting. This leads to a question of whether the confrontation of these two extreme ways of valuation could be a valuable measure of unrecognised assets for the analysis of video games sector and, as a consequence, of creative industry. The aim of the study is to explore a possible role and use of market-to-book ratio for analysis of this sector.
Design/Methodology/Approach. The study starts with a literature review on market-to-book ratio applied to knowledge-based industries. The second part of the research is a comparison of results obtained for 19 biggest listed representatives of the video games sector in Poland to other sectors of Warsaw Stock Exchange. Further analysis juxtaposes the selected Polish representatives with world’s biggest ones in this sector. This will allow to draw conclusions about the usefulness of the examined ratio.
Findings. The research shows that the video games sector represents noticeably higher level of market-to book ratio than other industries in Poland and is comparable to the world’s representatives. It can be stated that the market’s valuation takes into account unrecognised assets (intellectual capital), which are greatly related to possible future cash flows. What is interesting is that, for some of the selected Polish companies, market-to-book ratio keeps decreasing compared to the levels at IPO. This refers to market efficiency in relation to possible speculative bubbles which companies of this sector are often accused of.
Originality/Value/Practical implications. The obtained results are applicable to the investors, analysts and managers of this sector. The research conducted enables a better understanding of the market-to-book ratio as an indicator of economic standing of creative industry companies and its earnings’ prediction.
Greta Keliuotytė-Staniulėnienė and Gintarė Smolskytė
Research purpose. The development of financial technology sector (fintech) poses a challenge for traditional financial institutions. Therefore, it is important to analyze not only how financial technologies can change, but also how the fintech sector affects banks and their profitability. The aim of the paper is to analyze the possibilities for the development of financial technology sector and quantitatively evaluate its impact on the banking sector’s profitability in Lithuania.
Design / Methodology / Approach. After the analysis of academic literature and statistical data, the authors used expert evaluation method in order to identify development opportunities of fintech in Lithuania and correlation-regression analysis was applied to evaluate the impact of fintech on the profitability of the Lithuanian banking sector.
Findings. According to the results of expert assessment research, Lithuania possesses favorable conditions for fintech enterprises to enter the Lithuanian finance market; it is expected that this sector will continue to rapidly expand mostly in payments and banking business models. Correlation-regression analysis showed that fintech indicators has an effect on the banking sector’s profitability but the effect in not very significant. The significance of the connection is lower because banking sector adapts technologies and is influenced by fintech from inside and outside the environment.
Originality / Value / Practical implications. The fintech sector in Lithuania is still new and so far very little researched. The outcomes of this research have expanded the scope of research of the Lithuanian fintech sector. The obtained results would be useful and relevant to (i) the government sector to manage risks and ensure stability in the financial sector; (ii) financial sector entities to monitor possible developments and prepare them accordingly; and (iii) banking sector to analyze the impact of technology and fintech entities on them and take strategic decisions in this regard.
Research purpose. The quality means a core attribute of the product. Based on empirical assessment of the consumer, it is ascertained if the products are of high quality. However, there may be considerable counterarguments against this assessment, because quality is a subjective characteristic. For this reason, a paradoxical situation arises – the same product that we consider to be a quality product someone else may regard as insufficient quality. What is considered standard quality level in some cases may be the assumed to have achieved world-class quality. This way the definition of quality product is very difficult. Brand is one of possible ways to differentiate products from one to another and at the same time it is one of possible ways to simplify consumer choices of choosing the best product. The brand can be the label for many consumers synonymous with quality. In this paper, the existence of difference between expected and delivered quality of brand products is analysed.
Design / Methodology / Approach. The survey of detection of the sources of the value of the brand was realized in 2018 in Slovak conditions. This primary source provided the base assessment of quality of branded sport clothes, cars, banks, cola drinks and brand products in general. Using factor analysis, supported by Cronbach’s alpha, verified by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure and Bartlett's test of sphericity, comprehensive factors that enable comparison of expected attributes and perceived reality were constructed. The extraction method of factor analysis was principal component analysis, the rotation method was Varimax with Kaiser normalization. Then the factors were analysed by chi-square test and correspondence analysis.
Findings. The objective of this article was to detect the existence of differences between the expected and perceived quality of brand products in Slovak conditions. Comprehensive factors were constructed that contain information about quality of branded clothes, cars, banks, cola drinks and brand products in general. The dependence of expectations and reality was indicted and paper resolved the relations between individual categories of factors.
Originality / Value / Practical implications. The original survey of attitudes of Slovak consumer was made. The information about of notable sample was analysed, and this empirical study pointed out the real quality of brand products.
Research purpose. The regime of maritime spaces as a general rule ‘is determined by the principles and norms of international law relating to the oceans and enshrined in the Geneva Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1958 and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982(UNCLOS). However, the issue is that UNCLOS practically does not fix any special regime on the Arctic, bearing in mind that the use of the Arctic spaces is rather effectively regulated at the national levels. Arctic issues in this regard lacked in-depth analysis, and no attempts to develop specific norms and approaches with regard to the Arctic region were made, with the exception of Article 234 of UNCLOS, which is related to the right of the coastal States to ‘regulate navigation’ in its Exclusive Economic Zones. The purpose of the current research is to analyse how far a State may go in the process of establishment of the laws and regulations while exercising the right granted by Article 234, with the particular focus made on the position taken by the Russian Federation.
Design / Methodology / Approach. In order to achieve the aims of the research, a descriptive method was chosen as the method for clarification on the legal regime currently applicable in the Russian Arctic Sector, in particular supported by the dogmatic method, in order to understand and explain the position taken by the legislative bodies.
Findings. The result of the research is the attempts to satisfy how having interests and stakes in the region of high overall salience contributes to prioritization by Russian Federation of its rights over the region by restrictions imposed on the navigational freedoms granted to the States by UNCLOS. Additionally, suggestions are made in respect of the possible solutions necessary in order to strike a balance between national interests of the Arctic States and rights of others States to access the area without causing any harm to the environment and security of the region.
Research purpose. The job types might be potential determinants of subjective well-being (SWB), which is seldom investigated in the current literature. This article examines this relationship by collecting data from the Chinese Household Income Project in 2013 to explore this relationship.
Approach. In line with existing studies on SWB, we apply the ordered probit model and further estimate the effects of different job types on SWB.
Findings. This article demonstrates that individuals employed by Sino-foreign joint enterprises tend to have the lowest SWB. On the contrary, those employed by the public sector and private enterprises are more likely to acquire higher satisfaction.
Practical implications. To conclude, job types are closely linked with SWB and job types should be incorporated as a crucial factor when further analysing the SWB.
Cooperation between and within the companies can be an important success factor. Based on trust, companies at present have created formal and informal network structures in which cooperation between them plays a special role. In the present times, the economic importance of supply chains can be observed in almost every industry regardless size: multinational companies and even small and medium-sized enterprises are actively involved in global value-creating chains. More and more business leaders recognize that when consumers are about to decide on their purchases, not just performance of a company is evaluated but that of the entire supply chain and supply network. Forms of cooperation in the supply chain affect the companies in several ways: we can investigate its impact on growth, operation and thus, on the effectiveness of the supply chain and competitiveness. Both cooperation between and within companies are important in creating the ultimate value added. This paper aims to explore the functional fields in which companies cooperate with each other, i.e. how and in what manner they are connected to each other. Results and conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and a questionnaire filled in by companies in Hungary.
Learning quantitative courses in higher education is difficult because students need to understand complex principles and solve complicated questions. In these courses, new knowledge depends on prior knowledge and when gaps in students’ understanding occur, they are difficult to overcome. The study examines a new model called comprehensive technology-based learning (CTBL) designed to overcome these difficulties.
The problem is addressed by full coverage of the curriculum in a variety of textual and video learning tools, as well as an ongoing process of diagnosis and prognosis, designed to overcome students’ difficulties and knowledge gaps. The study examined the students’ attitudes towards CTBL model relating to three quantitative courses (n1=39, n2=25, n3=18, ntotal). It points out that a quantitative course based on CTBL significantly nurtures students’ learning. Improving learning and overcoming knowledge gaps are influenced by several characteristics: Full coverage of the curriculum, excellent learning experience, repetition of the material without limitations, flexibility to learn outside the classroom, a variety of means to choose which ones are more appropriate, and making learning much easier. Beyond that, the diagnosis and prognosis done by the lecturer cause the instructor to intervene in real time, to solve the students’ difficulties on an ongoing basis.
Electronic payments are considered to be a fast and secure alternative for traditional payment methods. Today, it is impossible to imagine modern bank operations, commercial transactions and other payments without electronic payments. This article shows that electronic payments are not the only means for reducing costs with respect to other payment methods, such as cash, but can also generate significant benefits for increasing economic development and reducing shadow economy. The paper focuses on the development of electronic payments in Georgia and its impact on the economy of the country. Over the decades, the payment systems in Georgia have evolved significantly in line with the technological advancement. Significant progress has been achieved in improving the e-payment systems infrastructure. The evolution of e-payments in Georgia can be characterized by the following: debit (including prepaid) and credit cards, credit and debit transfers compose a core set of noncash payment types commonly used today by consumers and businesses. These core noncash payment types are used both in traditional ways, such as in-person purchases, payroll deposits, and bill payments, and in innovative ways, such as contactless and mobile payments, e-commerce and online bill payments. Using the economic-mathematical analyses of the information taken from the web-page of the National Bank of Georgia and commercial banks’ publications, a mathematical model was built, based on which the positive relationship between e-payments and economic growth in terms of real GDP was shown.
Clusterization has been named as one of the priorities of the development strategy of many European Union countries. Clusterization experts have already hypothesized that clusters of various economic activities are important not only in the formation of regional policy, but they also in a complex way stimulate the whole country’s economic growth from job creation to the development of intellectual property to new innovative industries. These realities show that cluster activity and its results are important not only for cluster participants, but also for the economy of the country in which clusters operate. However, there are currently no reliable and effective tools to validate this hypothesis. In the analysis of the problem and in order to deepen the theoretical knowledge of the object under study, this paper analyses and summarizes systematic, logical and comparative scientific literature, scientific studies, strategic documents and legal acts. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical overview of the currently available knowledge on service clusterization and sustainable economic development, to demonstrate the acute absence of relevant theoretical foundations and linkages that would allow to analyse these phenomena, and propose a methodological approach that would allow to expand this field of study.