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Open access

Behrouz Alizadeh Savareh, Hassan Emami, Mohamadreza Hajiabadi, Mahyar Ghafoori and Seyed Majid Azimi

Abstract

Manual analysis of brain tumors magnetic resonance images is usually accompanied by some problem. Several techniques have been proposed for the brain tumor segmentation. This study will be focused on searching popular databases for related studies, theoretical and practical aspects of Convolutional Neural Network surveyed in brain tumor segmentation. Based on our findings, details about related studies including the datasets used, evaluation parameters, preferred architectures and complementary steps analyzed. Deep learning as a revolutionary idea in image processing, achieved brilliant results in brain tumor segmentation too. This can be continuing until the next revolutionary idea emerging.

Open access

Karthick Raj Mani, Md. Anisuzzaman Bhuiyan, Md. Mahbub Alam, Sharif Ahmed, Mostafa Aziz Sumon, Ashim Kumar Sengupta, Md. Shakilur Rahman and Md. S. M. Azharul Islam

Abstract

Aim: To compare the dosimetric advantage of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized lung tumor between deep inspiration breath hold technique and free breathing technique.

Materials and methods: We retrospectively included ten previously treated lung tumor patients in this dosimetric study. All the ten patients underwent CT simulation using 4D-CT free breathing (FB) and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) techniques. Plans were created using three coplanar full modulated arc using 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) bream with a dose rate of 1400 MU/min. Same dose constraints for the target and the critical structures for a particular patient were used during the plan optimization process in DIBH and FB datasets. We intend to deliver 50 Gy in 5 fractions for all the patients. For standardization, all the plans were normalized at target mean of the planning target volume (PTV). Doses to the critical structures and targets were recorded from the dose volume histogram for evaluation.

Results: The mean right and left lung volumes were inflated by 1.55 and 1.60 times in DIBH scans compared to the FB scans. The mean internal target volume (ITV) increased in the FB datasets by 1.45 times compared to the DIBH data sets. The mean dose followed by standard deviation (x̄ ± σx̄) of ipsilateral lung for DIBH-SBRT and FB-SBRT plans were 7.48 ± 3.57 (Gy) and 10.23 ± 4.58 (Gy) respectively, with a mean reduction of 36.84% in DIBH-SBRT plans. Ipsilateral lung were reduced to 36.84% in DIBH plans compared to FB plans.

Conclusion: Significant dose reduction in ipsilateral lung due to the lung inflation and target motion restriction in DIBH-SBRT plans were observed compare to FB-SBRT. DIBH-SBRT plans demonstrate superior dose reduction to the normal tissues and other critical structures.

Open access

Toshizo Katsuda, Rumi Gotanda, Tatsuhiro Gotanda, Takuya Akagawa, Nobuyoshi Tanki, Tadao Kuwano, Atsushi Noguchi and Kouichi Yabunaka

Abstract

Gafchromic films have been used to measure X-ray doses in diagnostic radiology such as computed tomography. The double-exposure technique is used to correct non-uniformity error of Gafchromic EBT2 films. Because of the heel effect of diagnostic x-rays, ultraviolet A (UV-A) is intended to be used as a substitute for x-rays. When using a UV-A light-emitting diode (LED), it is necessary to determine the effective optimal UV wavelength for the active layer of Gafchromic EBT2 films. This study evaluated the relation between the increase in color density of Gafchromic EBT2 films and the UV wavelengths. First, to correct non-uniformity, a Gafchromic EBT2 film was pre-irradiated using uniform UV-A radiation for 60 min from a 72-cm distance. Second, the film was irradiated using a UV-LED with a wavelength of 353-410 nm for 60 min from a 5.3-cm distance. The maximum, minimum, and mean ± standard deviation (SD) of pixel values of the subtraction images were evaluated using 0.5 inches of a circular region of interest (ROI). The highest mean ± SD (8915.25 ± 608.86) of the pixel value was obtained at a wavelength of 375 nm. The results indicated that 375 nm is the most effective and sensitive wavelength of UV-A for Gafchromic EBT2 films and that UV-A can be used as a substitute for x-rays in the double-exposure technique.

Open access

Noushin Hassan Pour, Alireza Farajollahi, Masoud Jamali, Ahad Zeinali and Amir Ghasemi Jangjou

Abstract

Introduction: Due to the effect of radiation on both the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues, the side effects of radiation in normal tissues are expected. One of the important complications in the head and neck radiotherapy is the doses reached to the larynx and spinal cord of patients with non-laryngeal head and neck tumors.

Materials and Methods: In this study, CT scan images of 25 patients with non-laryngeal tumors including; lymph nodes, tongue, oropharynx and nasopharynx were used. A three-field and a four-field treatment planning with and without laryngeal shield in 3D CRT technique were planned for each patient. Subsequently, the values of Dmin, Dmean, Dmax and Dose Volume Histogram from the treatment planning system and NTCP values of spinal cord and larynx were calculated with BIOPLAN and MATLAB software for all patients.

Results: Statistical results showed that mean values of doses of larynx in both three and four-field methods were significantly different between with and without shield groups. Comparison of absorbed dose didn’t show any difference between the three and four field methods (P>0.05). Using Shield, just the mean and minimum doses of spinal cord decreased in both three and four fields. The NTCP of the spinal cord and larynx by three and four-field methods with shield in the LKB and EUD models significantly are less than that of the three and four fields without shields, and in the four-field method NTCP of larynx is less than three radiation field.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that there is no significant difference in doses reached to larynx and spinal cord between the treatments techniques, but laryngeal shield reduce dose and NTCP values in larynx considerably.

Open access

Hassan Vafapour and Zaker Salehi

Abstract

Introduction: Although in many developed countries, Analog radiography (AR) is replaced with digital radiography (DR) but AR is still widely used in many countries included Iran. Therefore, dosimetrically assessment of delivered dose is very important to avoid unnecessary patient dose.

Materials and Methods: In this study, all imaging centers in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad were selected. The initial information included the mean kVp and mAs used by the personnel to perform each radiological procedure were gathered through a questionnaire. Barracuda dosimeter was then used to measure Incident air kerma (ki). Data obtained from digital radiography (DR) and analogue radiography (AR) were then analyzed and compared to each other.

Results: The mean incident air kerma (ki) for five radiological procedures (chest AP&Lat, Skull AP&Lat, Lumbar spine AP&Lat, Thoracic spine AP&Lat and Pelvis) in digital devices were 0.38&1.34, 2.1&1.94, 4.99&7.83, 4.18& 6.41 and 4.33 mGy and those for analogue devices were 0.7&1.28, 3.05&3.02, 7.25&9.9, 7.125&8.36 and 5.36 mGy, respectively.

Discussion and Conclusion: The use of low kVp or high mAs is one of the reasons to increase the incident air kerma (ki) in analogue methods comparing to digital methods in all procedures except the chest (in Lateral view). Also the results, surprisingly, showed that in some of the analogue methods incident air kerma (ki) was less than digital methods which is most probably because of the auto-exposure conditions.

Open access

Nita Handayani, Freddy Haryanto, Siti Nurul Khotimah, Idam Arif and Warsito Purwo Taruno

Abstract

This paper presents an EEG study for coherence and phase synchrony in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. MCI is characterized by cognitive decline, which is an early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms such as memory loss and cognitive impairment. EEG coherence is a statistical measure of correlation between signals from electrodes spatially separated on the scalp. The magnitude of phase synchrony is expressed in the phase locking value (PLV), a statistical measure of neuronal connectivity in the human brain. Brain signals were recorded using an Emotiv Epoc 14-channel wireless EEG at a sampling frequency of 128 Hz. In this study, we used 22 elderly subjects consisted of 10 MCI subjects and 12 healthy subjects as control group. The coherence between each electrode pair was measured for all frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta). In the MCI subjects, the value of coherence and phase synchrony was generally lower than in the healthy subjects especially in the beta frequency. A decline of intrahemisphere coherence in the MCI subjects occurred in the left temporo-parietal-occipital region. The pattern of decline in MCI coherence is associated with decreased cholinergic connectivity along the path that connects the temporal, occipital, and parietal areas of the brain to the frontal area of the brain. EEG coherence and phase synchrony are able to distinguish persons who suffer AD in the early stages from healthy elderly subjects.

Open access

Manthala Padannayil Noufal, Kallikuzhiyil Kochunny Abdullah, Puzhakkal Niyas and Pallimanhayil Abdul Raheem Subha

Abstract

Aim: This study evaluates the impacts of using different evaluation criteria on gamma pass rates in two commercially available QA methods employed for the verification of VMAT plans using different hypothetical planning target volumes (PTVs) and anatomical regions.

Introduction: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a widely accepted technique to deliver highly conformal treatment in a very efficient manner. As their level of complexity is high in comparison to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the implementation of stringent quality assurance (QA) before treatment delivery is of paramount importance.

Material and Methods: Two sets of VMAT plans were generated using Eclipse planning systems, one with five different complex hypothetical three-dimensional PTVs and one including three anatomical regions. The verification of these plans was performed using a MatriXX ionization chamber array embedded inside a MultiCube phantom and a Varian EPID dosimetric system attached to a Clinac iX. The plans were evaluated based on the 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm global gamma criteria and with three low-dose threshold values (0%, 10%, and 20%).

Results: The gamma pass rates were above 95% in all VMAT plans, when the 3%/3mm gamma criterion was used and no threshold was applied. In both systems, the pass rates decreased as the criteria become stricter. Higher pass rates were observed when no threshold was applied and they tended to decrease for 10% and 20% thresholds.

Conclusion: The results confirm the suitability of the equipments used and the validity of the plans. The study also confirmed that the threshold settings greatly affect the gamma pass rates, especially for lower gamma criteria.

Open access

Md Abdullah Al Mashud, M Tariquzzaman, M Jahangir Alam and GA Zakaria

Abstract

The aim of this study is to present the results of commissioning of Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (linac). The acceptance test and commissioning were performed for three photon beams energies 4 MV, 6 MV and 15 MV and for the multileaf collimator (MLC). The percent depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane beam profiles, head scatter factors (Sc), relative photon output factors (Scp), universal wedge transmission factor and MLC transmission factors were measured. The size of gantry, collimator, and couch isocenter were also measured.

Open access

Maria Atiq, Atia Atiq, Khalid Iqbal, Quratul ain Shamsi, Farah Andleeb and Saeed Ahmad Buzdar

Abstract

Objective: The Gamma Index is prerequisite to estimate point-by-point difference between measured and calculated dose distribution in terms of both Distance to Agreement (DTA) and Dose Difference (DD). This study aims to inquire what percentage of pixels passing a certain criteria assure a good quality plan and suggest gamma index as efficient mechanism for dose verification of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans.

Method: In this study, dose was calculated for 14 head and neck patients and IMRT Quality Assurance was performed with portal dosimetry using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Eclipse software has a Gamma analysis function to compare measured and calculated dose distribution. Plans of this study were deemed acceptable when passing rate was 95% using tolerance for Distance to agreement (DTA) as 3mm and Dose Difference (DD) as 5%.

Result and Conclusion: Thirteen cases pass tolerance criteria of 95% set by our institution. Confidence Limit for DD is 9.3% and for gamma criteria our local CL came out to be 2.0% (i.e., 98.0% passing). Lack of correlation was found between DD and γ passing rate with R2 of 0.0509. Our findings underline the importance of gamma analysis method to predict the quality of dose calculation. Passing rate of 95% is achieved in 93% of cases which is adequate level of accuracy for analyzed plans thus assuring the robustness of SIB IMRT treatment technique. This study can be extended to investigate gamma criteria of 5%/3mm for different tumor localities and to explore confidence limit on target volumes of small extent and simple geometry.

Open access

D Janaki Sathya and K Geetha

Abstract

Automatic mass or lesion classification systems are developed to aid in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions present in the breast DCE-MR images, the systems need to improve both the sensitivity and specificity of DCE-MR image interpretation in order to be successful for clinical use. A new classifier (a set of features together with a classification method) based on artificial neural networks trained using artificial fish swarm optimization (AFSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The basic idea behind the proposed classifier is to use AFSO algorithm for searching the best combination of synaptic weights for the neural network. An optimal set of features based on the statistical textural features is presented. The investigational outcomes of the proposed suspicious lesion classifier algorithm therefore confirm that the resulting classifier performs better than other such classifiers reported in the literature. Therefore this classifier demonstrates that the improvement in both the sensitivity and specificity are possible through automated image analysis.