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###### Quantification of the Solar Radiative Regime Variability Based on the Clearness Index

## Abstract

The fluctuation of solar radiation at ground level represents a challenge in modeling the time series of solar irradiance. A procedure for the quantification of the instability of the solar radiative regime is reported. This procedure is based on the clearness index, as the ratio of the horizontal solar irradiance measured at ground level and the estimated one at extraterrestrial level. New quantities for classifying the days from the radiative stability point of view are being introduced. A procedure for classifying days according to their stability regime as stable, variable and unstable is presented.

###### Relativistic Persistent Currents in Ideal Aharonov-Bohm Rings and Cylinders

## Abstract

In this report we revisit the results obtained in [1, 2] where the relativistic Aharonov-Bohm was studied for the first time. The method is based on the exact solutions of the complete (1+3)-dimensional Dirac equation of fermions moving in ideal Aharonov-Bohm (AB) rings and cylinders which are used for deriving the exact expressions of the relativistic partial currents. It is shown that these currents can be related to the derivative of the fermion energy with respect to the flux parameter, just as in the non-relativistic case. However, a new and remarkable relativistic effect is the saturation of the partial currents for high values of the total angular momentum. Based on this property, the total relativistic persistent currents at *T* = 0 is evaluated for rings and cylinders obtaining approximative simple closed formulas. Notice that this report brings together the texts of Refs. [1, 2] with some improvements and unitary notations.

###### Approximate Solution of Schrödinger Equation with Pseudo-Gaussian Potential Viewed as a Perturbation

## Abstract

We consider the Schrödinger equation with pseudo-Gaussian potential and point out that it is basically made up by a term representing the harmonic oscillator potential and an additional term, which is actually a power series that converges rapidly. Based on this observation the system can be considered as a perturbation of harmonic oscillator. The perturbation method is used to approximate the energy levels of pseudo- Gaussian oscillator. The results are compared with those obtained in the analytic and numeric case.

###### Clouds and the Near-Earth Environment: Possible Links

## Abstract

Climate variability is a hot topic not only for scientists and policy-makers, but also for each and every one of us. The anthropogenic activities are considered to be responsible for most climate change, however there are large uncertainties about the magnitude of effects of solar variability and other extraterrestrial influences, such as galactic cosmic rays on terrestrial climate. Clouds play an important role due to feedbacks of the radiation budget: variation of cloud cover/composition affects climate, which, in turn, affects cloud cover via atmospheric dynamics and sea temperature variations. Cloud formation and evolution are still under scientific scrutiny, since their microphysics is still not understood. Besides atmospheric dynamics and other internal climatic parameters, extraterrestrial sources of cloud cover variation are considered. One of these is the solar wind, whose effect on cloud cover might be modulated by the global atmospheric electrical circuit. Clouds height and composition, their seasonal variation and latitudinal distribution should be considered when trying to identify possible mechanisms by which solar energy is transferred to clouds. The influence of the solar wind on cloud formation can be assessed also through the ap index - the geomagnetic storm index, which can be readily connected with interplanetary magnetic field, IMF structure. This paper proposes to assess the possible relationship between both cloud cover and solar wind proxies, as the ap index, function of cloud height and composition and also through seasonal studies. The data covers almost three solar cycles (1984-2009). Mechanisms are looked for by investigating observed trends or correlation at local/seasonal scale

###### Complex Impedance of Manganese Ferrite Powders Obtained by Two Different Methods

## Abstract

Two samples of manganese ferrite powder were obtained by the calcination method (sample A) and hydrothermal method (sample B). The crystal structure of the samples has been determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results shown that the sample A has three phases (FeMnO_{3}, Mn_{2}O_{3} and Fe_{2}O_{3}) and the prevailing phase is FeMnO_{3} with perovskite structure and the sample B has only a single phase (MnFe_{2}O_{4}).

The grain morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the compositional analysis was done by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX).

Measurements of the frequency (f) and temperature (T) dependent complex impedance, Z(f, T) = Z’(f, T) - i Z’’(f, T) of the samples over the frequency range 20 Hz - 2 MHz, at various temperature values from 300C to 1100C are presented. From these measurements, we have shown that the temperature dependence of the relaxation time is of Arhenius type, which suggests that the conduction process is thermally activated. The values obtained for the activation energy Ea, are: 16meV (sample A) and 147.65meV (sample B).

Applying complex impedance spectroscopy technique, the obtained results shows the shape of a single semicircle at each temperature over the measurement range, meaning that the electrical process obeys to a single relaxation mechanism. The impedance and related parameters of the electrical equivalent circuit depend on the temperature and the microstructure of samples. The resistive and capacitive properties of the investigated samples are dominated with the conduction and relaxation processes associated with the grain boundaries mechanism..

###### The Effect of Particle Concentration on the Heating Rate of Ferrofluids for Magnetic Hyperthermia

## Abstract

The complex magnetic susceptibility χ(f) = χ′(f) - i χ″(f), of a ferrofluid sample with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene and stabilized with oleic acid, over the range 0.1 GHz to 6 GHz, was determined. The initial sample has been successively diluted with kerosene (with a dilution rate of 2/3), thus obtaining further three samples. Using the complex magnetic susceptibility measurements of each sample, the frequency field and particle concentration dependencies of the heating rate of the ferrofluid samples, were analyzed. The results show the possibility of using the heating rate of ferrofluid samples with different particle concentrations, in hyperthermia applications.

######
Electric Properties of NaTaO_{3} Obtained by Hydrothermal Method

## Abstract

Two samples of NaTaO_{3} perovskite materials were prepared by the standard hydrothermal method at the same reaction temperature (600 °C) but with different sintering times: 6 hours for sample S1 and 12 hours for sample S2.

Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), it shows that samples S1 and S2 are mixtures of Na-Ta oxides (Ta_{2}O_{5} and the prevailing phase NaTaO_{3}). The scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM), shows that the grains are connected each other in agglomerated clusters of size about few hundred nanometers.

The frequency (f) dependencies of complex impedance, Z(f) = Z’(f) - i Z’’(f) of the samples, over the frequency range 20 Hz - 2 MHz, at room temperature are presented. The real component Z’ of the complex impedance decreases with increasing frequency and the imaginary component Z’’ has two maximum corresponding to two relaxation processes.

The results obtained from the complex impedance spectroscopy, Z’’(Z’) showed the appearance of two semicircles, corresponding to grain and grain boundary mechanism. Experimental results have been fitted with two parallel RC equivalent circuits connected in series and the parameters R and C have been evaluated.

###### Influence of Mechanical Stirring on the Crucible Dissolution Rate and Impurities Distribution in Directional Solidification of Multicrystalline Silicon

## Abstract

In this study, time dependent three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out using the STHAMAS3D software in order to understand the effects of forced convection induced by mechanical stirring of the melt, on the crucible dissolution rate and on the impurities distribution in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) melt for different values of the diffusion coefficient.

Numerical simulations were performed on a pilot scale furnace with crucible dimensions of 38x38x40cm^{3}. The computational domain used for the local 3D-simulations consists of melt and crystal.

The dissolution rate was estimated from the total mass of impurities that was found in the silicon melt after a certain period of time. The obtained results show that enhanced convection produced by a mechanical stirrer leads to a significant increase of the dissolution rate and also to a uniform distribution of impurities in the melt.

###### Nonthermal Argon Plasma Generator and Some Potential Applications

## Abstract

A laboratory - made nonthermal plasma generator is presented. It has a diameter of 0.020 m and length of 0.155 m and contains two electrodes. The first electrode is a 2% Th-W alloy, 0.002 m in diameter bar, centred inside the generator’s body by means of a four channel teflon piece; the other three channels, 0.003 m in diameter, are used for Ar supply. The second electrode is a nozzle of 0.002 m - 0.008 m diameter and 0.005m length. A ~500 kV/m electric field is generated between the two electrodes by a high frequency source (13.56 MHz ±5%), equipped with a OT-1000 (Tungsram) power triode. For Ar flows ranging from 0.00008 m^{3}/s to 0.00056 m^{3}/s, a plasma jet of length not exceeding 0.015 m and temperature below 315 K is obtained. Anthurium andraeanumis sample , blood matrix, human hair and textile fibers may be introduced in the plasma jet. For time periods of 30 s and 60 s, various effects like, cell detexturization, fast blood coagulation or textile fiber or hair cleaning and smoothing are obtained. These effects are presented and discussed in the paper.

###### A Numerical Approach for the Solution of Schrödinger Equation With Pseudo-Gaussian Potentials

## Abstract

The Schrödinger equation with pseudo-Gaussian potential is investigated. The pseudo-Gaussian potential can be written as an infinite power series. Technically, by an ansatz to the wave-functions, exact solutions can be found by analytic approach [12]. However, to calculate the solutions for each state, a condition that will stop the series has to be introduced. In this way the calculated energy values may suffer modifications by imposing the convergence of series. Our presentation, based on numerical methods, is to compare the results with those obtained in the analytic case and to determine if the results are stable under different stopping conditions.