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Treatment of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis using traditional Chinese medicine

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium with strong pathogenicity, which can induce chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer in addition to causing gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia after longterm infection. It is even associated closely with the occurrence of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Recently, the incidence of H.pylori-associated gastritis has increased rapidly worldwide, especially in China. The prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection has become an urgent issue to be resolved by the medical community. Traditional Chinese medicine and the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine have recently shown unique advantages in the treatment of H.pylori–associated gastritis. The progress in this area is summarized in this review.

Open access
Abnormal platelet count correlates with poor survival in hepatocellular carcinoma

Abstract

Background

Normal platelet (PLT) plays a vital role in thrombosis, the inflammatory response, and liver regeneration. The effect of abnormal PLT counts has been seldom explored in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); hence, this investigation was conducted to evaluate the prognostic importance of preoperative abnormal PLT count in HCC patients after liver resection retrospectively.

Methodology

The PLT counts were determined using Sysmex XT-1800i automated hematology analyzer and its matching reagents. Patients were divided into two groups: a normal PLT group and an abnormal PLT group. Chi-square test, Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox univariable and multivariable regressions were utilized to analyze the data.

Results

A total of 391 HCC patients who underwent liver resection were included in this study. The overall survival (OS) rates were 59% and 31%, and the median survival time was 69 months and 31 months in the normal and abnormal PLT groups, respectively. The PLT level was associated with OS in univariate and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio [HR], 1.991 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.412–2.808] and HR, 2.217 [95% CI, 1.556–3.159], respectively).

Conclusions

Patients with normal PLT had a better outcome in terms of OS. The results suggested that abnormal PLT count is an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients after liver resection.

Open access
Autophagy and virus infection

Abstract

Autophagy is a highly conserved pathway for physiological metabolism. Bilayer vesicles transport their contents to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy is therefore a means of removing intracellular viruses and other pathogens in mammalian cells. However, the role of autophagy in virus infection is complex. Several viruses have developed a way to escape autophagy-dependent degradation and replicate themselves through autophagy. This article summarizes the fundamental mechanism and function of autophagy and its role in infection with viruses such as HIV, HTLV-1, and other retroviruses.

Open access
The function of HBx in HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause cancer death in the world. HCC is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages with intrahepatic metstasis or vascular invasion and has a poor prognosis with a high mortality rate. In the world, hepatitis B virus (HBV) caused over 50% HCC, making it the most common carcinogen after tobacco. Notably, accumulating evidence suggests HBV X gene (HBx) play an important role in tumorigenesis of HBV-related HCC. In this review, we will summarize the functions of HBx proteins in tumorigenesis and discuss their potential implications in cancer therapy.

Open access
Hematotoxicity of intratracheally instilled arsenic trioxide in rats

Abstract

The study aimed to investigate the correlation between concentration of inhaled arsenic trioxide and dynamic changes in hematotoxicity in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four study groups that were treated with saline (control) or arsenic trioxide at a low (0.1 mg/mL), medium (1 mg/mL), or high (10 mg/mL) dose by intratracheal instillation. Blood samples were collected for analysis at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure. Compared with the control group, intratracheal instillation of arsenic trioxide affected hematopoietic differentiation in rats, leading to blood cell changes that were related to observation time and concentration.

Open access
The high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumor

Abstract

HPV is classified into high-risk and low-risk types depending on its probability of leading to tumorigenesis. Many studies have shown that HPV infection, especially the infection caused by the high-risk type, is always related to prostate cancer, bladder cancer, penile cancer, testicular cancer, and other urinary system tumors. However, previous studies differed in sexual openness and racial genetic susceptibility of the study object, sample size, and experimental methods. Hence, the correlation between high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumors remains controversial. The early open reading frame of the HPV genome is composed of E1–E7, among which E6 and E7 are the key transfer proteins. The combination of these proteins with oncogene and anti-oncogene may be one of the mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis.

Open access
Infection in central venous catheter led by parenteral nutrition of tumor patients

Abstract

With the wide application of parenteral nutrition (PN) and central venous catheter (CVC) in tumor patients, the relative infection led by CVC has become a common and troublesome hospital infection in clinics. During infusion, PN fluid forms a high-sugar and high-fat microenvironment around CVC, facilitating the adhesion, growth, and diffusion of pathogenic bacteria. This condition forms a bacterial biofilm (BF) consisting of one or several kinds of pathogenic bacteria. Upon formation of the film, pathogens in the BF can resist antibacterial drugs and immune cells, causing repeated infections of bacteria or fungi and endangering the lives of patients. In this article, we summarize the applications of PN, characteristics of CVC infection in tumor patients, mixed BF, and related research methods to provide reference for studies of mixed BF infection of CVC.

Open access
NADPH promotes the rapid growth of the tumor

Abstract

NADPH oxidase is the main source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS plays an important role in a variety of tumor types. The ROS mediated by NADPH oxidase increases the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α) through multiple signaling pathways in tumor, and HIF-α could be regulated and controlled by downstream multiple targeted genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor, glucose transporter to promote tumor angiogenesis, cell energy metabolism reprogram and tumor metastasis. Meanwhile, HIF-α can also regulate the expression of NADPH oxidase by ROS, thus further promoting development of tumor. In this review, we summarized the functions of NADPH in tumorigenesis and discussed their potential implications in cancer therapy.

Open access
The progress in study of fosfomycin

Abstract

In recent years, heavy drug resistance in bacteria has become increasingly serious, and the progress of research and development of new antibiotics are slow. Therefore, seeking an alternative from the safe and effective “old medicine” is a strategy for clinical action against infection. Among them, fosfomycin is extremely relevant. Based on the related literature at home and abroad, this review briefly introduces fosfomycin in the context of progress in synthetic methods, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, and antibacterial activities, to provide references for clinical rational use.

Open access
Progress in the treatment of fungal infections of the central nervous system

Abstract

The incidence of fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) has gradually increased in recent years. Intracranial fungal infection can be classified as diffuse and focal infections. The clinical manifestations of these infections include fever and cranial pressure caused by meningitis or meningoencephalitis, as well as focal neurological defects caused by lesions in the intracranial space. Diagnosing fungal infections of the CNS requires comprehensive analysis of the patient’s medical history, epidemiology, underlying disease, clinical manifestation, imaging manifestations, and results from various laboratory tests. The identification of fungal bodies or structures in brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid specimens is the golden standard of diagnosis. The principles for the treatment of fungal infections of the CNS are the effective control of pathogenic risk factors, use of effective antifungal drugs, and the active implementation of surgical intervention for fungal abscesses and granulomas. In the meantime, new diagnoses and treatments should be actively explored to improve the prognosis of patients.

Open access