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Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

Abstract

Despite the great progress made in neonatal and perinatal medicine over the last couple of decades, sepsis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality. Sepsis in pediatric population was defined at the Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference in 2005. There is still no consensus on the definition of neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is a sepsis that occurs in the neonatal period. According to the time of occurrence, neonatal sepsis can be of early onset, when it occurs within the first 72 hours of birth and results from vertical transmission, and of late onset, in which the source of infection is found most often in the environment and occurs after the third day of life. The most common causes of early-onset sepsis are Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and E. coli. Risk factors can be mother-related and newborn-related. Clinical symptoms and signs of sepsis are quite unspecific. The dysfunction of different organs may imitate sepsis. On the other hand, infectious and non-infectious factors may exist simultaneously. The start of the antimicrobial therapy in any newborn with suspected sepsis should not be delayed. Pentoxifylline may have potential benefits in preterm newborns with sepsis. The only proven intervention that has been shown to reduce the risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis is intrapartum intravenous antibiotic administration to prevent GBS infection. It is still a great challenge to discontinue antibiotic treatment in non-infected newborns as soon as possible, because any extended antibiotic use may later be associated with other pathological conditions.

Open access
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence Level on The Depression Vulnerability

Abstract

Introduction: Recently the issue of emotional intelligence has become a widespread theme of discussion. This review paper is made a contribution to this debate. Discovering of effective predictive and protective factors for depression would have far-reaching consequences for society, science and economy.

Material and Methods: To investigate this issue, we searched articles available in the Google Scholar and PudMed databases under the following terms: emotional intelligence, depression, emotional intelligence and depression for the years 1999-2019. Accessible literature allowed to show basic information of emotional intelligence, detect a system of relationships between emotional intelligence level and depression, and present recommendations.

Results and Discussion: The result of this analysis is a statement that all components of emotional intelligence can be a defense against depression. People with high abilities in regulation their own emotions have large social support, what protect them against depression. The capable managing one’s own and others’ emotions create large and deep interpersonal relationships, what provide more emotional support and tangible assistance during everyday challenges. Stressful life events are among the most powerful predictors of depression, and high level of emotional intelligence enable to cope with them more effectively.

Conclusions: The present text will constitute an impulse to explore this theme more. Moreover, there is a recommendation for researchers to create more effective and simplified tests for examining the level of emotional intelligence in case of spreading them much more and use them in a routine psychiatric practice. A confirmation of the title hypothesis can stand a key to struggle with depression.

Open access
Variation of the Cytokine Profiles in Gingival Crevicular Fluid Between Different Groups of Periodontally Healthy Teeth

Abstract

Profiling of biomarkers of physiological process represents an integrative part in optimisation of diagnostic markers in order to adjust the diagnostic ranges to the potential effects of the local factors such occlusal forces in case of periodontal tissues. The objective of this study was estimation of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, TNFα and IFNγ concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid samples (GCF) between different groups of teeth. Two hundred fifty-nine systemically healthy non-smokers having at least one vital tooth without restorations, with healthy periodontal tissues, were clinically examined and the GCF sample was retrieved. The cytokine levels were estimated using flow cytometry and compared between central incisors (CI), lateral incisors, canines, first premolars, second premo-lars, first molars and second molars. Cytokine profiles varied between different groups of teeth with tendency of increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines from anterior teeth toward molars. Molars might be considered teeth with natural predisposition for faster bone resorption while the adjustment of diagnostic range of periodontal biomarkers for anterior or posterior teeth should be considered within diagnostic context. Cytokine profiles varied between different groups of teeth with tendency of increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines from anterior teeth toward molars. Molars might be considered teeth with natural predisposition for faster bone resorption while the adjustment of diagnostic range of periodontal biomarkers for anterior or posterior teeth should be considered within diagnostic context.

Open access
Nutritional Status Disorders in Student Population

Abstract

Obesity is a global health problem associated with numerous pathological conditions. Unhealthy eating habits and the lack of regular physical activity are considered the most common cause of disordered nutritional status. The aim of the research was to determine the nutritional status in student population and the predictors which determine this condition. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 262 students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences in Kragujevac (130 males and 132 females). Body weight and height, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat (VF) were measured. Each respondent completed a specially designed questionnaire considering sociodemographic data, eating habits and physical activity. The majority of students have normal BMI values (75.6%), 5.3% were classified as underweight, 14.9% as over-weight and 4.3% as obese. Normal VF values were found in 93.1% of subjects, while high in 5.7% and very high in 1.1%. A statistically significant difference in BMI and VF values was found between male and female gender (24.41 vs. 21.05, Sig = 0.000 and 5.47 vs. 3.07, Sig = 0.000, respectively), as well as between students of the first 4 and the last 2 years of study (Sig = 0.019 and 0.000 respectively). Unhealthy eating habits, such as the consumption of sweets, snacks, fast foods and white bread, and the absence of regular physical activity were statistically more present in overweight/obese respondents. Given the significant presence of pre-obesity/obesity in the examined population, corrective measures should be taken in this population in order to avoid a major health problem in the future.

Open access
Pelvic floor muscles after birth: Do unstable shoes have an effect on pelvic floor activity and can this be measured reliably? – A feasibility study / Der Beckenboden nach der Geburt: Verändern instabile Schuhe die Aktivität und kann diese reliabel gemessen werden? – Eine Machbarkeitsstudie

Abstract

Background

Women often suffer from urinary incontinence after childbirth. Pelvic floor muscle training is an evidenced-based intervention to prevent urinary incontinence and improve its symptoms

Aim

The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there is a change in the activation of the pelvic floor muscles with different extrinsic parameters (barefoot versus unstable shoe). Second, we wanted to define variables that can be measured reliably and correlated with pelvic floor activity.

Methods

Data of 15 women who were 8 weeks to 6 months postpartum were analyzed. Two conditions (“barefoot” and “kyBoot”) were tested, with each participant performing three different tasks: walking, standing with an active pelvic floor, and standing with a passive pelvic floor. Three-dimensional kinematics of the body were recorded. Activity of the abdominal, back, and gluteal muscles was measured using surface electromyography (EMG). The activity of the pelvic floor was recorded using a vaginal electrode. Maximum pelvic floor activity was compared for each condition, and correlations among pelvic floor activity, kinematic variables, and skeletal muscle activity were determined.

Results

The maximum activity of the pelvic floor while walking was significantly higher when participants were barefoot than when they were wearing kyBoot shoes. For the standing trials, no significant differences between the conditions were detected. No surrogate marker was found to measure the pelvic floor activity.

Conclusion

With regard to the pelvic floor musculature, no recommendation is possible in favor of or against wearing unstable shoes. Technical developments are necessary to provide solutions to reliably measure the pelvic floor activity.

Open access
Application of Nonvascular Interventional Radiology Procedures in the Treatment of Iatrogenic Ureteral Injuries

Abstract

Introduction. He most common ureteral injuries are iatrogenic injuries. Diagnosis of ureteral lesions includes ultrasound, computer tomography, intravenous urography, anterograde and retrograde ureterography. For a definitive diagnosis it is necessary to determine the existence of the extralumination of contrast media from the ureter. Minor ureteral injuries can be treated with nonvascular interventional radiology procedures.

Case presentation. We have presented two patients with iatrogenic ureteral injuries. Injury in the first patient occurred at the sigmoid colon resection and partial resection of the bladder, whereas in the second patient the lesion was formed as a result of cesarean section. In both patients, there was a history of previously conducted interventions, clinical picture included fever and pain, a diagnosis was made by intravenous and anterograde urography. Patients were treated with interventional radiology procedures and they have been definitely cured.

Conclusion. Methods of nonvascular interventional radiology can be successfully applied in the treatment of minor iatrogenic ureteral injuries.

Open access
Does the Difference in Leukocyte Concentration of PRP Affect the Short-Term Follow-Up Results in Cases Diagnosed with Early Stage Knee Osteoarthritis?

Abstract

This prospective study was conducted for the clinical evaluation of pain severity and knee functionality following PRP injections with different leukocyte (WBC) concentrations applied to cases diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 109 patients were included in the study. According to the leukocyte content the PRP injections were prepared as low-leukocyte content PRP (PPRP) and high concentration leukocyte content PRP (L-PRP). Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (n=44) received low-leukocyte content PRP and Group II (n =65) received high-leukocyte content PRP. The patients were evaluated clinically with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Knee Society Score (KSS). The changes in the PLT levels of the L-PRP group after the procedure compared to the levels prior to the procedure were found to be statistically significantly greater than the changes in the PPRP group. The mean VAS score of all the cases before treatment was 9.05±0.91 and this score decreased to 3.71±1.46 within 12 months. The increases in the mean Knee Society Score (KSS) values were determined as 16.92±1.97 within 6 months and 16.89±2.97 within 12 months in the P-PRP group and 19.71±1.24 within 6 months and 19.86±0.42 within 12 months in the L-PRP group. The most important aspect of this study is that, in contrast to many other studies, the results continued after the 6th month and were reported to be good in the 12th month. It was also recorded that L-PRP was clinically superior to P-PRP in the treatment of early stage knee osteoarthritis.

Open access
Evaluation of Nasal Decongestants by Literature Review

Abstract

Over-the-counter drugs are medicines that are available to consumers without a prescription. The most common оver - the-counter preparations in self - medication are nasal decongestants that can be used systemically or locally in the form of drops or nasal sprays. The most common indications for nasal decongest-ants are viral infections and allergic conditions in order to alleviate the symptoms so it is necessary to inform the users about the type of drug, the active substance it contains and the correct dosage regimen. Given their availability and the prevailing safety precaution, these preparations can lead to numerous prolonged conditions and complications. The mechanism of action of nasal decongestants is based on the reduction of blood vessels’ swelling in the nose, which helps the opening of the airway. As a result, most nasal decongestants cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels). There are nasal decongestants that block histamine and have a good effect on people who suffer from seasonal allergies.

Availability (free sale) and prolonged use of the decongestant lead to a decrease in the sensitivity of the alpha receptor, which leads to the need to increase the dose at shorter time intervals to achieve the same effect. As a consequence, patients use excessive, uncontrolled doses of nasal decongestants, which is a public problem and warns of the necessity of identification and the taking of measures to prevent their uncontrolled procurement and use.

Open access
Fertility after the Operation of Cryptorchism in Childhood

Abstract

Cryptorchism is a congenital anomaly of male genitalia, and is defined as a disorder of lowering testicles into the scrotum. In our study, the quality of sperm and fertility of men who were operated from unilateral or bilateral cryptorchism in childhood were analyzed. According to the age in which they were operated, patients were classified into different time groups, subjected to clinical examination and sperm analysis. A normal sperm count was found: 36.9% of the total number of patients operated from unilateral to bilateral cryptorchism. The highest percentage of normal sperm counts was 73.97%: the data which was found in the group that was operated from one-sided cryptorchism to the end of the second year of life. Regardless of the age of the cryptorchism operation, it is possible to expect a disorder of spermatogenesis.

Open access
Response of Maize Varieties to Sowing Dates in Inner Terai Region, Dang, Nepal

Abstract

Sowing dates and varieties affect the productivity of maize. A field experiment was conducted to find out the response of maize hybrids to sowing dates on growth and productivity of maize in spring season at Lamahi, Dang in 2019. The experiment was laid out in two factor factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The treatment consisted of combination of three different sowing dates (February 1, February12 and February 23) and two maize varieties (Arun-2 i.e. OPV and hybrid Bioseed-9220).The result revealed that earlier planting on February 1 produced the highest yield (8265 Kg ha-1) which was significantly superior than latter planting of February 12(6099 kg ha-1)and February 23 (5934 kg ha-1).The higher yield in earlier planting was due to significantly higher no of kernel per ear, non-significant but higher number of cob per unit area, thousand grain weight. Similarly, Bioseed 9220 produced higher yield (7798 kg ha-1) compared to Arun-2 (5,734 kg ha-1). The higher yield of hybrid Bioseed 9220 was because of higher number of cob per unit area harvested and more number of kernel per cob. Therefore, earlier planting with hybrid maize is recommended in spring season of Dang and locations with similar climatic conditions for higher productivity of maize.

Open access