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Open access

Paul A. Pavlou

Abstract

Augmented Intelligence - effective human-computer symbiosis - has the potential to address emerging challenges successfully, possibly more so than pure AI. It integrates the unique abilities of human beings that cannot be replicated by AI. Large-scale IoT problems often cannot be solved by either computers or human beings alone. Therefore, there are significant opportunities in IoT applications that are coupled with the notion of Augmented Intelligence. Managers need to consider carefully for which task, in which way and to what extent IoT applications will be applied. They must make their choices based on the expected performance, cost and risk of autonomous IoT solutions that would operate without human oversight. For example, automated manufacturing, predictive maintenance and security IoT solutions may be cautiously fully automated. However, human-oriented applications, such as smart retail, could still maintain a certain level of human oversight.

Open access

Larry Downes

Abstract

The pressure of delivering products in hyper-competitive markets often leads developers to ignore basic data management precautions, along with a failure to devote adequate resources to marketing. To assure that short-term errors don’t cause long-term damage for the IoT, developers must adopt new strategies. Converging on a single IoT standard could foster adoption as well as better security protocols. To handle the sheer number of connected items and their need for constant interaction demands investments in high-performance networks. For IoT products to integrate deeply into consumers’ daily lives, applications must be integrated into existing solutions from trusted brands. Finally, they must do more than simply replace existing and still-working items, but add new functions and new applications that existing technology can’t possibly duplicate.

Open access

Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak

Open access

Rudolf Aunkofer

Abstract

The classical customer journey with its touchpoints is transformed into a lifelong, interactive customer relationship within an IoT-based product-service ecosystem. The customer journey happens in multiple, partially automatic loops that make it significantly less predictable for manufacturers and retailers. For many product categories, the IoT is not going to take off until providers and retailers succeed in getting at what their customers really want. For one thing, they need to better understand individual usage behavior, and for another, there is a need to better personalize products and services, creating emotional and situation-specific customer experiences. Expanding the ability of digital products to communicate with each other, to record and analyze usage behavior and to implement concrete product improvements will be decisive. If customer centricity is reinvented in the IoT space, customers will see a real value and smart products will replace classical products in the next five to ten years.

Open access

Donna Hoffman, Tom Novak and Linden Tibbets

Abstract

IFTTT is a neutral platform that offers easy and free ways to get all your apps and devices talking to each other. Millions of users worldwide have enabled more than 75 million Applets for over 600 services that already cooperate with the platform. Linden Tibbets, co-founder and CEO of IFTTT, explains that everything in the future will be a digital service. Connecting all these services is a tricky task and many companies are struggling with making these connections. Tibbets explains how the IFTTT platform tackles these interfaces and functions and how end users and companies can get more value from being able to connect just about everything with everything.

Open access

William Rand

Abstract

What consumers notice from the IoT is just the tip of the iceberg. Underneath the surface, dozens of applications are communicating and interacting with each other. A brand that wants to succeed in this complex environment needs to work within this network and make sure that its messages are the ones that filter all the way through and ultimately reach the consumer. IoT designers need to make sure that products and devices can only send and receive valid messages and consider the ramifications of those messages on the rest of the system. If security is underestimated, the whole system and the consumers are put at risk. Further, it is important to collect and examine the data that the interactions generate to better understand the usage of IoT-enabled products and their interactions with other elements of the complex network.

Open access

Stefano Puntoni

Abstract

The benefits brought to us by recent product innovations also come with potential burdens for people who are motivated to consume by identity motives - that is, by the desire to be the kind of person that they want to be. Being freed from a personally relevant routine might be undesirable. Therefore, IoT adoption will be more likely when the associated tasks are less relevant for identity signaling and less likely when the associated tasks are relevant for one’s identity. However, people who oppose IoT application in one context might willingly accept IoT applications in others with less personal relevance. Managers should not overlook that people’s quest for meaning in consumption remains an important driver of buying decisions even in our age of amazing machines. Physical products won’t completely disappear any time soon, especially when they are relevant for a person’s identity.

Open access

Garikai Makuyana and Nicholas M. Odhiambo

Abstract

This paper provides new evidence to contribute to the current debate on the relative impact of public and private investment on economic growth and the crowding effect between the two components of investment in South Africa. Using annual data from 1970 to 2017, the study applies the recently developed Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)-bounds testing approach to cointegration. The study finds that private investment has a positive impact on economic growth both in the long run and short run, while public investment has a negative effect on economic growth in the long run. Further, in the long run, gross public investment is found to crowd out private investment, while its infrastructural component is found to crowd in private investment. The results of the study also reveal that both gross public investment and non-infrastructural public investment crowd out private investment in the short run. Overall, the study finds private investment to be more important than public investment in the South African economic growth process and that the importance of infrastructural public investment in stimulating private investment in the long run cannot be over-emphasized.

Open access

Akinola Morakinyo, Colette Muller and Mabutho Sibanda

Abstract

The study builds on previous studies of the consequences of non-performing loans on an economy. Using a seven-by-seven matrix in the impulse response function (IRF) of the structural autoregressive model, we find a long-run impact of an impulse to non-performing loans on the banking system and the macroeconomy in Nigeria. Conversely, non-performing loans also respond to the innovation of all macro-banking variables aside from the exchange rate and the growth rate to GDP. Also, the level of non-performing loans grows in influence in relation to the changes to the exchange rate using the variance decomposition tool of Structural VAR. Hence, a prominent role is assigned to the level of NPLs in linking the friction in the credit market to the susceptibility of both the banking system and the macroeconomy. This study passes the serial correlation tests and the three tests of normality.

Open access

Karl Farmer and Stefan Kuplen

Abstract

Even more than eight decades since the publication of Keynes’ “General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money” modern macroeconomists disagree on the notion of “underemployment equilibrium” with so-called “involuntary unemployment”. While the majority of macro theorists trace involuntary unemployment back to frictions and rigidities in the adaptation of wages and output prices to market imbalances, a minority position holds that even under perfectly flexible output prices and wage rates involuntary unemployment might occur. Morishima in “Walras’ Economics” and more recently Magnani presume that contrary to the majority view aggregate investment is not perfectly flexible but governed by “animal spirits” of investors. The aim of the present paper is to integrate the Morishima-Magnani approach into a Diamond-type overlapping generations’ (OLG) model with internal public debt subsequently extended by human capital accumulation. It turns out that in spite of perfectly flexible real wage and interest rate involuntary unemployment occurs in intertemporal general equilibrium when aggregate investor sentiments are too pessimistic regarding the rentability of investment in real capital. In the model extended by human capital a higher public debt to output ratio decreases unambiguously involuntary unemployment, if initially the endogenous output growth rate is higher than the real interest rate.