The main objectives of this work are to optimize the extraction parameters, to test the antioxidant activity of Aloe Vera extract and to study the impact of this extract on deteriorating molds of Algerian variety of wheat (CIRTA). The extraction was optimized by central composite design. Determination of the polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins was performed by using colorimetric assays. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds were performed by RPHPLC-UV method. The antioxidant activity was tested by three methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and CUPRAC (Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity), the antifungal activity of Aloe Vera extract on isolated strains from durum wheat were tested by dilution in a solid medium method. The optimum of total phenolic got was1,044 x 104 µg GAE/g of dry extract. The extract is rich in polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The analysis of phenolic compounds of Aloe Vera by RP-HPLC-UV revealed seven phenolic compounds. Strong antioxidant activity was obtained for Aloe Vera extract. Purification and microscopic study of isolated strains gave the possibility of identifying four strains: Alternaria spp1, Alternaria spp2, Penicillium spp, and Aspergillus spp. the antifungal potential of Aloe Veravaries according to the fungal genera and the concentrations of extract used.
Ibtissem Boulacel, Brahim Harkati, Radia Ayad, Ibrahim Demirtas, Hocine Laouer and Salah Akkal
The focus of this paper was to assess the phytochemical composition, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the crude extracts of the aerial parts of Ferula lutea. Four new compounds were isolated from this genus, and their structures were primarily established by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D spectroscopic techniques. Total phenolics and flavonoids containing in ethyl acetate (AcOEt) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts were quantified [199.1-184.02 mg gallic acid equivalent / g of dry weight], flavonoids [70.24-65.95 mg quercetin / g dry weight]. DDPH scavenging and phosphomolybdenum methods were used to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity. The obtained results showed a significant antioxidant activity of the two aerial parts. Correlation analysis between the DPPH values and those for TAC indicates the possibility of the two models for evaluating antioxidants power from medicinal plants. Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), AcOEt and n-BuOH extracts were screened against two gram-negative [Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Pseudo aeruginosa (P.aer)] and two gram-positive [Staphylococcus aureus (S.aur) and Bacillus (Bacil.)] bacteria using disc diffusion method. The results indicate a good inhibition of CH2Cl2 and EtAct extracts on the growth of (Bacil. and E.coli). Furthermore n-but extract showed a significant inhibitory effect only against E.coli.
Laurent André, Christomir Christov, Arnault Lassin and Mohamed Azaroual
In this study we evaluated new mixing (θ and ψ) Pitzer parameters, and developed models for solution behavior and solid liquid equilibria for the following mixed systems: 1) KCl-AlCl3-H2O, 2) KCl-FeCl3-H2O, 3) KCl-CrCl3-H2O, 4) MgCl2-AlCl3-H2O, 5) MgCl2-FeCl3-H2O, 6) MgCl2-CrCl3-H2O, 7) CaCl2-AlCl3-H2O, 8) CaCl2-FeCl3-H2O, and 9) CaCl2-CrCl3-H2O at 25°C. The solubility modeling approach, implemented to the Pitzer specific interaction equations is employed. The values of the binary parameters for the binary sub-systems needed here to parameterize models for mixed systems are taken from our previous studies. Mixing solution parameters are evaluated in this study using activity (when available) and solubility data. Following an approach in our previous modeling studies on M(III) chloride and sulfate systems, in this work we accept that complex Al(III), Cr(III), and Fe(III) aqueous species do not exist in solutions. We test the new models by comparing model predictions with experimental data (activity data for unsaturated solutions and solubility data in ternary systems). The agreement between model predictions and experimental data is very good. Combining present parameterization, with our M(III) models developed previously we fully complete our at 25°C model for the 8th component system Na-K-Mg-Ca-Al(III)-Cr(III)-Fe(III)-Cl-H2O. The resulting model calculates solubilities and solution activities to high solution concentration within experimental uncertainty. Limitations of the model due to data insufficiencies are discussed. The resulting parameterization was developed for the Pitzer formalism based PHREEQC database.
Ouroud Fellah, Samir Hameurlaine, Noureddine Gherraf, Amar Zellagui, Tahar Ali, Abdennabi Abidi, Muhammed Altun, Ibrahim Demirtas and Ayse SahinYaglioglu
The aerial parts of T. gallica collected from three different locations (arid, humid and semi-arid) were extracted using ethyl acetate. The crude extracts were subjected to phenolic appraisal and antiproliferative activity using ELISA and xCELLigence assays. The total phenolic and flavonoids were evaluated using appropriate techniques to give a yield of total phenolics ranging between 238.46 and 348.56 mg GAE (Gallic acid equivalent)/g dry weight extract. The flavonoids yield was found to vary from 36.6 to 103.14 mg QE (quercetin equivalent)/g dry weight extract. Moreover, the extracts were tested against rat brain tumor (C6) and human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines and displayed important differences in activity. These disparities highlighted the effect of climatic factors as quality determinants of secondary metabolites and therefore as a key control of the biological therapeutic effect.
The Quantitative Structure Retention Relationship (QSRR) approach has been applied to model the gas chromatographic retention of 16 alkyloxazoles and 16 alkylthiazoles on three capillary columns with different polarities. The potential of the Charge-related Topological Index (CTI) developed by one of the authors (I.B.) was investigated as a descriptor in QSRR linear multivariate regressions. Calculated values of atomic charges and the indication of the presence of substitutions in different positions in the solute structures are used to generate regressions. Analysis of the equations derived proves their ability to describe and evaluate the participants in the chromatographic separation process. The present quantitative characterization of the chromatographic retention of alkylazoles shows the potentials of deriving QSRR models to exhibit the retention intermolecular interactions.
The green areas play a significant role in keeping the urban population healthy. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in the urban and peri-urban parks lately. The Nature Park Shumen plateau and Shumen City Park are an important green area for residents of Shumen city. The aim of this study was to make comparative analysis of the qualities of the Nature Park Shumen Plateau and the Shumen City Park as green spaces.
For quality assessment 10 criteria were used. The criteria were grouped in four categories - Green space placement, Green space use, Environment and Biodiversity. Five-point Likert scale was used to determine satisfaction with each of the 10 criteria. Nine experts did the evaluation of the criteria.
In category “Green space placement”, the Nature Park Shumen Plateau and the Shumen City Park had very similar evaluations however there were big differences in the individual criteria. According to the category “Green space use, both parks showed rather similar results. Concerning the category „Environment”, the Nature Park Shumen Plateau received slightly higher assessment and the category “Biodiversity” was ranked as twice higher.
The results show that the Nature Park Shumen Plateau and the Shumen City Park possess good quality as a green area, as the Nature Park Shumen Plateau was higher assessed compared to the Shumen City Park.
The aim of the study is to describe the testate amoebae fauna in seven reservoirs in the Northeastern Bulgaria and to investigate the relationship of taxonomic diversity and abundance of these organisms to the some characteristics of the reservoirs. A total of 52 species, varieties and forms belonging to 15 genera were identified in the benthal of the coastal zone. There are significant differences in species richness and abundance between the testacea of different reservoirs. Number of taxa was significantly higher in the Beli Lom (29 species and 12 genera) and Loznitsa (22 species and 13 genera). Most of the reservoirs - Kara Michal, Bogdantsi, Isperih, Lipnik and Brestovene have extremely poor fauna compared to other similar reservoirs. This is confirmed by the low values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, which varied between 1.04 and 2.396, as well as by the other indices used to assess the environmental conditions in the reservoirs. The data of the regression analysis showed that a relation between age, surface area and water volume of the reservoirs and the species richness and abundance of testacea is not established.
Vanya Koleva, Teodora Koynova, Asya Dragoeva and Nikolay Natchev
Anthropogenic activities cause environmental pollution and alter biogeochemical cycles. Soils in cities and their vicinity are exposed to different pollutants. Nature Park Shumen Plateau is a protected area situated in the proximity of Shumen (Bulgaria). The aim of this research was to compare elemental composition of surface soil samples from Nature Park with two areas in Shumen city.
Soil samples from seven sites on the territory of Nature Park and from two urban sites were collected. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence technique. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were performed to interpret the complex data.
The content of 24 elements was determined: Br, Y, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb. Results presented here and previously showed that concentrations of heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb are below the upper limit according to Bulgarian legislation. Concentrations of Mn and Fe in samples from Nature Park were comparable to the literature data reported for unpolluted areas. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis show similarity of the content of 24 elements between samples from Nature Park and from Shumen city. These findings are in accordance with our previous positive results from Allium-test: cytogenetic endpoints showed a presence of harmful compounds in Nature Park soils.
The content of heavy metals in the surface soils studied show a lack of environmental risk for Nature Park. However, a similar distribution pattern of the investigated elements in the park and two anthropologically influenced areas in Shumen city indicated a potential hazard in Nature Park.