Elena Bendíková, Michal Marko, Anetta Müller and Éva Bácsné Bába
The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the health-oriented exercises included in the final part of the physical and sport education on the selected factors of the musculoskeletal system of the female students of the selected secondary school, as well as to point out the diversification and the realization of the innovative contents of the teaching lessons with the health aspect, especially from the point of view of the primary prevention of the female students’ health of secondary school, improving the level of the posture and the overall muscular system. The monitored group consisted of 33 female students of the selected secondary school in Trenčín (Slovakia). The experimental group (EG) A consisted of 17 female students (age = 16.9 ± 1.3 years, height = 168.6 ± 3.9 cm, weight = 57.3 ± 3.4 kg) and the control group (CG) B consisted of 16 female students (age = 16.3 ± 1.1 years, height = 167.3 ± 4.7 cm, weight = 58.9 ± 4.8 kg). From the point of view of the data acquisition methods, in initial, ongoing and final evaluations were applied standardized methods for assessing the posture and the muscular system for physical and medical practice. Subsequently, the applied health-oriented exercises were used in the final part of the physical and sport education for 3 months, 3 times per week, for the duration of 12 minutes. The results significantly showed the improvement of the monitored musculoskeletal system (p < 0.01), as well as the overall muscular system (p < 0.01). Based on the findings, we point out the suitability of including the health-oriented exercises in the teaching process of the physical and sport education with the focus on the musculoskeletal system. This study was supported by VEGA 1/0242/17 Physical activity as prevention of functional disorders related to the musculoskeletal system of secondary school students.
Martin Vaváček, Anton Lednický and Kristína Hajduová
The authors focused on biomechanical analysis of the exercising shapes of the compulsory exercises in the equestrian vaulting. It is a sport sector in which similar observations have not been carried out. The use of 3D analysis brought the opportunity to observe the exercising shapes on a simulator and in real conditions on a horse. By the selected 3D approach they focused on three crucial phases of the swing back. This approach helped detect possible mistakes which the coach could not register from one position. The experimental set consisted of highly accomplished riders. The results confirmed that the higher the accomplishment level of a sportsman the fewer are the differences between the performances of an exercising shape. From the above mentioned we could assume that by including exercises on a barrel simulator into training units, we could influence the technique of performance of the individual exercising shapes on a horse in movement.
Stanislav Kraček, Dagmar Nemček, Petra Kurková, Wioletta Lubkowska and Šimon Tomáš
The aim of the study was to analyse and compare the level of selected coordination abilities of pupils with communication ability disorder (CAD) and able-bodied pupils in the same age category. Two groups of participants were recruited for the study: (1) pupils attending special elementary school for children with CAD (n = 17; 5 girls and 12 boys in mean age 11.2 ± 0.7 years), (2) and ablebodied pupils (n = 20; 12 girls and 8 boys in mean age 11.4 ± 0.5 years) without gender differentiation. 5 standardised tests measuring coordination abilities were used as a primary research method (Šimonek 2015): low jump test, spatial orientation ability test, circles through running test, one leg stand test, catching ball test. Group differences were analysed with Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples. The level of significance was α < 0.05. We found significantly higher level of spatial orientation ability and static balance displayed by able-bodied pupils comparing pupils with CAD. The level of lower limb kinaesthetic discrimination ability, rhythmic ability, frequency and reaction time in pupils with CAD are comparable to the level of able-bodied pupils. We recommend that children with CAD should participate in regular physical activities and sports after compulsory education together with able-bodied children to improve their fine and gross motor ability, coordination abilities as well as overall physical fitness.
The ability to perform the stable playing performance during the whole match to larger extent depends on sufficient level of development of conditioning abilities. Technique of playing activities of an individual, decision-making process of players and especially speed of the game are influenced by already mentioned abilities. The aim of our study was to recognize the level of motor performance in regional centres of handball and at the same time to verify the efficiency of sports preparation. This programme includes the change of weekly microcycle practice, consisting of 2 conditioning trainings focused on strength and endurance. The research was realized in these age categories: younger (n=40) and older juniors (n=38). To evaluate the level of motor abilities we selected 5 simply performed activities: bench press (explosive strength of upper extremities ), run for 8x5 metres (speed with change of direction), sit-ups for 2 minutes (power of abdominal muscles), standing long jump with legs together (explosive strength of lower extremities) and 12 minutes run (aerobic endurance). When following microcycle programme weekly, the results of motor test pointed out the positive influence of this programme on the development of strength and aerobic endurance (p≤0.05). In category of older juniors the performance in test of 12 minutes run has fallen significantly in comparison with the first testing (p≤0.05). The result of this study indicates the lack of recommended aerobic running practice in weekly microcycles of monitored teams.
Zerf Mohammed, Boras Fatima Zohar, Benali Gourar, Bengoua Ali and Mokkedes Moulay Idriss
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the Aerobic endurance training as indicators of physiological training status among male soccer players. A total of 138 well-trained first division soccer players under 18 years were tested. Testing was based on the Cooper test as a one of simple tests to estimate VO2max. BMI and BFP as valued anthropometric measurements to control body change relative to maximal oxygen consumption during dynamic exercise with large muscle groups benefit training time soccer training experience. Performance in this experience was based on the subjection that 60 ml/kg/min of VO2max is the minimum fitness requirement for male soccer players to play at the elite level. Admit in this study as a protocol to categorise our sample into two groups (up and under the range VO2max ± 60 ml/kg/min) and it was based on statistics applied and the design used. Our results highlighted the importance of aerobic performance up to 60 ml/kg/min as the minimum fitness requirement to enhance the players' aerobic capacity allied to maximal heart rate relative to BFP levels as a better parameter in comparison with BMI for the prediction of low VO2max concomitant to the physiological training status as requests soccer performance demand.
The philosophical concept of hermeneutics presents the opposite pole of human mental activities than positivism. Phenomenology, together with hermeneutics, also presents a kind of opposition to the positivistic reduction of learning the world. This paper focuses on the topic of authenticity of sport from these two (hermeneutic and phenomenological) approaches. As a basic theoretical platform Martin Heidegger’s book Time and Being is used. The authors develop a specific kind of categorization of the social groups engaged in sport events via the ancient concepts of “TECHNÉ ATHLETIKÉ” and “TECHNÉ GYMNASTIKÉ”. Two different phenomena: sport and “sport” are examined within the next part of the paper. There are some reasons mentioned in conclusions coming from the hermeneutic and phenomenological approach which help us to understand and accept the opinion that a kind of return to “techné gymnastiké” can support the authentic modes of being in human approach to sport.
The purpose of this study was to map and analyse the emotions among the pupils attending special schools for children with hearing impairments (HI) towards physical education (P.E.) classes. The main objective was to compare the emotions of their feelings during the P.E. lesson and when the P.E. lesson is cancelled. We analysed the data of 73 pupils attending five grades (from 5th up to 9th) of two special elementary schools (at Hrdličkova Street; n = 37 and at Drotárska cesta Street; n = 36) in Bratislava (Slovakia). The research sample consisted of 45 boys and 28 girls in average age 13.5 ± 1.4 years. 48 % of pupils were deaf, 36 % of them were hard of hearing and 16 % were hearing but with hard communication and learning disorders. A non-standardized questionnaire (Antala et al. 2012) was used as a primary research method. Two of the selected questions were related to the emotionality towards P.E.lessons. The data were differentiated from the point of view of the gender and schools. A comparison of the emotions of pupils with HI pointed out a difference consisting in a significantly higher level of positive emotions during P.E. classes among boys (p < .05) and students attending special school at Hrdličkova Street (p < .05). A statistically significant difference was not discovered in the emotions when P.E. class was cancelled neither among genders nor schools. In general, pupils receiving special education show very high positive emotions of the feelings during P.E. lessons but on the other hand they are happier than disappointed when P.E. lesson is cancelled. This will not only increase the positive emotions towards P.E. lessons but also allow physical activities to become a regular part of pupils’ leisure activities as well as long term sport activities.
School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness. Whereas Exit school it is not included.
Method: For purpose, this controlled study verified the effect of Leaving school on the health relate to fitness among the unschooled.
Results: Based on the validity of alpha health-related fitness test battery, the design of study and statistical processes applied within search limitation. Our results caution against school dropouts on levels of health relate to fitness among the unschooled. Admit in five motor abilities namely strength, speed, endurance, flexibility and coordinative abilities, according to present study. Reported in the benefit of student scholar as an active lifestyle.
Conclusion: our results recommended all the Algerian dropouts-students to know the overall impact of participating and being involved in outdoor sport activities, subjected in this study as getting positive effects regarding active lifestyle, which in turn helps dropouts-students, to achieve a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and preventing them from disorders like obesity, laziness and stress related to life and their complication. A truth that leads us to recommended our teachers to understand the benefits of outdoor education sport or pro-socials activities contents as part of young people's educational experiences, to structure their free time in beneficial activities, including recreation, academic and cultural enrichment, opportunities for pursuit of individual interests and volunteer activities, especially before being expelled from their school.
The aim of the research was to find out the realization of the physical activity among the middle-aged adults by the association with their health, retrospective of the factor contributing to the transfer of the physical activity to the adulthood. The monitored group consisted of 742 respondents of the middle-aged adults from the Southern Districts of Slovakia, of which 403 were the women (age = 37.2 ± 3.04 years) and 339 were the men (age = 36.5 ± 4.54 years) as the selection was deliberate. The monitoring was conducted by the three stages in 2014, through the so-called “Egészség és mozgás” - “Health and Movement” standardized, anonymous questionnaire, which consisted of 60 questions. Our findings point to the stated facts. The findings found the relationship between the health and fitness among the men (r = 0.8300), as well as among the women (r = 0.7193). The relationship between the physical activity and the feeling of health was recorded only among the men (r = 0.8921), while the relationship between the health problems and the feeling of health was also found among the men (r = 0.739), as well as among the women (r = 0, 6714). At the same time, the men perceive the importance of the physical activity, in terms of their health condition (r = 0.8791) more intense than the women. The physical education was significantly (χ2 = 112.47, p < 0.01) among the men (67.6 %, n = 229), opposite to the women (33.7 %; n = 136) contributed to the transfer of the physical activity from the school environment to the adulthood. The stated findings show that the targeted education of the population, even from the childhood with the other effective, preventive measures is very important.
The aim of the study was to extend the knowledge about the internal load of elite young soccer players in small sided games with different parameters in the category under 19 years. The group consisted of 16 elite soccer players under the age of 19. This team competed in the first league of the same age category We have monitored the time spent by players in bio-energy load zones (percentage of maximum heart rate), in small sided games with 2 players against 2, 3 against 3, with the size of the playing field of 25 × 18 meters and 30 × 25 meters. We used basic mathematical and statistical characteristics and Wilcoxon t-test for non-parametric selections. Our study confirmed that in the category under 19 years is valid that the larger number of players (3:3) in small sided games, indicates the players to spend more time in bio-energy zones 4 and 5. Direct correlation also applies to the size of the playing field, depending on the time spent in the load zones 4 and 5. The larger dimension of the pitch indicates to more time the players spend in bio-energy load zones, which is considered to be focal for us. If we want to use them as a way of complex training program (game training), then the small sided games are suitable training strategy.