Running a business involves the risk borne by the owners. They are most often identified with failure to achieve expected rates of return by investors. The same mechanisms apply to business entities whose one of the main objectives is to maximize the profits level.
Equally important task, and according to the larger group of professional literature authors the most important is the increase of the company’s market value. Both purposes have common ground, involving the selection of indicators and instruments for the assessment of the financial condition and the value added of analyzed business entity.
The objective of this paper is to compare mechanisms used to assess the financial condition of enterprises and indicate imperfections of measures based solely on bookkeeping data derived from an annual financial report. Characteristic features and the more objective nature of economic measures, in particular such as the Economic Value Added (EVA), are presented.
Taking into consideration established directions of strategic actions and the need to exploit enterprises of custom employment statuses in practice, we would like to examine the alternative in the more detailed way above the vocational activation of people over 45 years old with the temporary work. The purpose of the study formulated in this way allows validating the research hypothesis which is: the temporary work doesn’t constitute the important instrument of supporting the occupational activity of people who are 45 years old. Above all features the shown population will be a base of conducted deliberations, a tendency to work in custom employment statuses and scale of exploiting this form of the occupational activity in Poland.
The aim of this article is twofold. First, it provides an overview of theoretical background of casino taxation. Second, it analyses the provisions of the Act regulating casino taxation in Poland and evaluates the consequences of the new Gambling Law in force since 2010. The first section of it discusses motives, outcomes and forms of casino taxation, taking into account inter alia the assumptions of optimal tax theory. It then deals with Polish regulations concerning the organisation of gambling in casinos and gambling tax design. The last section of the article analyses the scale of operation of Polish casinos, their revenues and the tax due on gambling activities.
One of the most important criteria dividing countries on developed and developing is technological level of the economy which is a derivative of R&D. We showed in the article, that only a rather small group of voivodships was characterized by a full efficiency of converting the expenditure into effects. Low values of efficiency indices pay attention for all ineffective provinces. It won’t be possible to say about none of them, that it found near the efficiency border which accompanied by large differences between decision making units.
The non-radial DEA model showed that both the internal expenditures (in converting into the thousand residents) and the personnel employed in the R+D work are not used efficiently and what’s more in the considerable degree wherein a first of said inputs research units managed by a little more effectively.
Polish economy witnessed enormous changes over the past 25 years. Systematic economic growth, increasing market openness, legal stabilization and integration with EU have substantially improved Poland’s global competitive position. That is reflected, among others, in intensified flows of long-term capital in the form of foreign direct investment (FDI). What is worth stressing, the last decade (regardless the economic crisis) brought a significant rise of investments made by Polish companies abroad (Outward FDI). It should be mentioned however, that the FDI flows are usually analyzed (in both theoretical and empirical literature) as if they consist only of equity investments, when in fact they consist also of intracompany loans. As the latter may not be driven by the same factors as equity flows, the real structure of FDI flows should be taken into consideration while evaluating the investment potential of companies. The paper examines selected issues concerning international expansion of Polish companies in the form of foreign direct investment. It provides theoretical background of the problem, explores the reasons for expansion and presents the structure of foreign direct investment by Polish industrial companies in the period 2003-2012 with regard to the equity and debt components of the flows. The study is based on the data provided by the National Bank of Poland (NBP).
The focus of the study is on contemporary concept of Facility Management (FM) that supports processes of management, especially real estate management. The study attempted to analyse the assumptions of standardization of real estate management within the FM concept. Analysis of the situation in the real estate market in Poland in 2013 showed the necessity of implementation of effective management, which concerns not only investment projects, but, particularly, the area of management of facilities and innovations, and taking measures aimed at increasing the value of real estate.
The role and opportunities offered by certain contemporary methods of real estate management (benchmarking and outsourcing) have been discussed, particularly in terms of management of auxiliary processes.
The study presented situation in the local construction sector and developer enterprises in Poland, particularly in terms of taking measures concerning formation of demand and customer preferences in the real estate market.
The results obtained in the study were used to analyse situation in the market of real estate in Częstochowa, Poland, stimulated directly by tendencies observed in this local market and suggest the necessity of proper management of auxiliary processes, which will substantially contribute to improvement of enterprises’ operation.
In this article, stability of fiscal policy and its impact on fiscal market have been analyzed. The issue appears especially important in times of the financial crisis which has affected all the European Union countries, although to a different extent. To achieve this, the author presented the aims, the tools and the aspects of financial stability to confront them with the situation that has occurred in the EU countries. To present the issue profoundly, the scientific research related to fiscal policy and its impact on financial markets were used in two opening units. In the third unit, the statistic data was cited to show the condition of the EU countries, the changes to it and the attempts aimed at improving the state of the public finance and therefore stabilizing financial markets.