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Electricity Storage in Energy Clusters

Abstract

The article aims to present the results of analysis and evaluation of using energy clusters as a bulk electricity storage. There were developed an analytical model of a sample microgrid (on-grid) and analysed using a software dedicated for optimizing such microgrids. The model of microgrid consist on electricity commercial and residential loads, photovoltaic and wind installations and batteries.

Open access
Green Propulsion Research at TNO the Netherlands

Abstract

This paper describes the recent theoretical and experimental research by the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) into green replacements for hydrazine, hydrazine derivatives and nitrogen tetroxide, as propellants for in-space propulsion. The goal of the study was to identify propellants that are capable of outperforming the current propellants for space propulsion and are significantly less hazardous for humans and the environment. Two types of propellants were investigated, being monopropellants and bipropellants. The first section of the paper discusses the propellant selection. Nitromethane was found to be the most promising monopropellant. As bipropellant, a combination of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and ethanol was selected, where the ethanol is rendered hypergolic with hydrogen peroxide. The second part of the paper describes the experimental verification of these propellants by means of engine testing. Initiation of the decomposition of nitromethane was found to be problematic, hypergolic ignition of the hydrogen peroxide and ethanol bipropellant however was successfully demonstrated.

Open access
Heat Transfer Determined by the Temperature Sensitive Paint Method

Abstract

The paper presents practical aspects of determining the amount of heat flow by measuring the distribution of surface temperature using the Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) method. The quantity measured directly with TSP is the intensity of the excited radiation, which is then converted to surface temperature. The article briefly presents three different methods for determining the heat transfer coefficient. Each of these methods is based on a separate set of assumptions and significantly influences the construction of the measuring station. The advantages of each of the presented methods are their individual properties, allowing to improve accuracy, reduce the cost of testing or the possibility of using them in tests of highly complex objects. For each method a mathematical model used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient is presented. For the steady state heat transfer test method that uses a heater of constant and known thermal power, examples of the results of our own research are presented, together with a comparison of the results with available data and a discussion of the accuracy of the results obtained.

Open access
Increasingly Safe, High-Energy Propulsion System for Nano-Satellites

Summary

Numerous attempts have been undertaken to develop propulsion systems for nano-satellite-type spacecrafts to enable their maneuvering in orbits. One of the potentially viable chemical propellant propulsion systems is a hybrid system. The present paper studies propellant composition variants with the metal hydride as fuel that can be chosen for a nano-satellite hybrid propulsion system. It defines key requirements for chemical propellant nano-satellite propulsion systems, and specifies potential propellant pairs based on a compact metal hydride. The study describes basic technical characteristics of a 1U CubeSat propulsion system.

Open access
Propulsion System Modelling for Multi-Satellite Missions Performed by Nanosatellites

Abstract

Progress in miniaturization of satellite components allows complex missions to be performed by small spacecraft. Growing interest in the small satellite sector has led to development of standards such as CubeSat, contributing to lower costs of satellite development and increasing their service competitiveness. Small satellites are seen now as a prospective replacement for conventional sized satellites in the future, providing also services for demanding users. New paradigms of multi-satellite missions such as fractionation and federalization also open up new prospects for applications of small platforms.

To perform a comprehensive simulation and analysis of future nanosatellite missions, an adequate propulsion system model must be used. Such model should account for propulsion solutions which can be implemented on nanosatellites and used in multi-satellite missions.

In the paper, concepts of distributed satellite systems (constellations, formations, fractionated and federated) are described with a survey of past, on-going and planned multi-satellite nanosatellites missions. Currently developed propulsion systems are discussed and the models of propulsion systems embedded in the WUT satellite simulation model are presented.

Open access
The Accuracy and the Printing Resolution Comparison of Different 3D Printing Technologies

Abstract

The article presents a research conducted with the project: ‘Additive technology used in conduction with optical methods for rapid prototyping of 3D printed models’ [13]. In this article selected three different 3D printing technologies: Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Material Jetting (MJ). Each of them was tested paying special attention to accuracy and resolution of printed elements. Accuracy tests were conducted on the reference specimens which also showed material texture. These specimens were scanned to verified dimensional deviations of printing methods. Printing resolution was verified on a heat exchanger model which was characterized by complicated structure. The highest accuracy and printing resolution was noticed in the MJ technology, PolyJet method on the Objet Eden 260 VS printing machine and the SUP 707 water soluble support material.

Open access
Bionics in Aviation

Abstract

In the paper bionics as a field of knowledge and inspiration in the aviation technologies is presented. Bionics is a branch of science on the borderline of art and biology that studies the way living organisms work, as well as their structure, in order to use the results to build technical devices. In the introduction part definition of bionics is described. In the next part of this document the aviation technologies inspired by nature is depicted. Then, technologies inspired by the butterfly wing are presented. The paper ends with conclusions.

Open access
Bonding of High Temperature Thermoplastic Carbon Composites with Resistance Welding Technique

Abstract

The article presents ‘state-of-the art’ on joining fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites with the use of resistance welding technique. Their welding process and potential difficulties connected with the process and quality control of a manufactured element are presented. The structure of a typical thermoplastic composite welding stand was also presented. The main welding technology elements were characterized: structure of the resistance element, implementation of the thermal process and pressure application required for joining materials. The paper also presents the required calibration ranges for a technological process with the use of strength test types SLS, DCB, SBS and nondestructive testing of joint with the ultrasonic method.

Open access
Flight Tests of Turboprop Engine with Reverse Air Intake System

Abstract

This work presents selected results of I-31T propulsion flight tests, obtained in the framework of ESPOSA (Efficient Systems and Propulsion for Small Aircraft) project. I-31T test platform was equipped with TP100, a 180 kW turboprop engine. Engine installation design include reverse flow inlet and separator, controlled from the cockpit, that limited ingestion of solid particulates during ground operations. The flight tests verified proper air feed to the engine with the separator turned on and off. The carried out investigation of the intake system excluded possibility of hazardous engine operation, such as compressor stall, surge or flameout and potential airflow disturbance causing damaging vibration of the engine body. Finally, we present evaluation of total power losses associated with engine integration with the airframe.

Open access
Preliminary Design Analysis of Regenerative Cooling for N2O/Alcohol Small Scale Liquid Rocket Engine

Abstract

This paper presents a concept of a small scale liquid-propellant rocket engine designed in AGH Space Systems for sounding rocket. During preliminary design of thermal aspects various ways of cooling were evaluated and described. Possible issues and design approaches for ablative, radiation and regenerative cooling are raised. The authors describe available solutions. Regenerative cooling is especially concerned as it is most popular solution in bi-liquid engines, in which alcohol fuel acts as coolant and is preheated before it reaches combustion chamber. To estimate a possible temperature distribution - and thus an applicability of such a system in the engine - a mathematical model of heat transfer was developed. Unique element of said engine is its oxidizer - nitrous oxide, which have been rarely used to date. Comparison between typical LOX bi-liquids is given and major differences that affect cooling arrangement are discussed. The authors compared different combinations of coolants, fuel/oxidizer ratios etc. to optimize the temperature distribution which is a key factor for the engine performance.

Open access