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Bending of an annular three-layer circular plate

Abstract

The main objective of this work is the numerical analysis of the strength and stiffness of an annular three-layer circular plate with variable mechanical properties of the core. The plates are subjected to bending. Numerical analysis of the deflection phenomenon is carried out under different support conditions of the plate. Furthermore, the influence of the material properties of the core (linear and non-linear model) on the shear stresses and deflecions is also investigated.

Open access
Development of a computational model of a lightweight vertical lathe with the use of superelements

Abstract

This article presents a process of developing a computational model of a light construction vertical lathe. The model is made using the finite elements method. Due to the complexity of the machine tool and the optimization of the computation time superelements have been used in the model. The application of this method has reduced the computation time allowing the analysis of many variants of the mutual position of the machine components. The results of the analyzes led to the indication of weak links of the machine tool. After the improvement of the machine tool construction the movement of the tool tip and the workpiece was much smaller.

Open access
Influence of heat treatment on the structure and properties of polyamide 6/ halloysite nanocomposites

Abstract

The nanocomposites of polyamide 6 (PA6) with halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were prepared by extrusion using co-rotating twin-screw extruder and then the standard test specimens were injected using a screw injection moulding machine. The content of HNT in the nanocomposites was 5 or 10 weight percent. The heat treatment of unmodified PA6 and nanocomposites was carried out in silicone oil in temp. 150±2°C. The samples were annealed for 3 hours and then cooled at a rate of 4 K/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) causes annealing to increase the crystallinity of the polyamide matrix. After an annealing treatment a nanocomposite with better mechanical properties was obtained. Halloysite nanotubes in polyamide matrix play the role of a nucleating agent.

Open access
Kinematic model of multiple trailers on a tractor system for production logistics applications

Abstract

This paper demonstrates kinematic analysis of multiple trailers on a tractor system for production logistics. The analysis concerned three different steering systems of the trailers: virtual clutch and drawbar system, conventional clutch and drawbar system, double Ackermann steering system. Designed kinematic models contain various variants of paths: turning at a constant value of the steering angle, changing the steering angle as a result of an approaching collision. Each of these variants also included driving in a straight line after a 90° turn. The validation of the developed kinematic model was done by using a real logistic train, which path was registered via aerial drone. For each of the developed kinematic models, a visualization of drive through the 90° turn was created.

Open access
Measurement strategy as a determinant of the measurement uncertainty of an optical scanner

Abstract

The subject of the article is an attempt to determine the impact of the applied measurement strategy on the accuracy of the measurement result. This problem is particularly crucial when measuring large objects. In these cases, it is not always possible to provide ideal conditions for the submission of particular scans. It is necessary to adjust the strategy to specific imposed conditions defined by the geometry of the object and to the time frame of the measurement itself.

With regard to the above, an attempt was made to carry out a series of accuracy studies testing the structural light scanner while measuring elements of overall dimensions greater than the measuring capacity of the scanner. At the same time, various potential measuring strategies were simulated in practical applications. Our studies were conducted using a pre-designed test template with a defined distribution pattern of reference points and geometrical elements. Moreover, in order to make an in-depth investigation of the issue, some trials were undertaken with the use of limiting parameters. That means the scanner had both an excess and shortage of information required for a correct assembly of scans. Those scopes were taken into consideration in the study in order to use the acquired knowledge in practical measuring applications. Furthermore, conclusions from the conducted studies indicate peaks and troughs of respective measuring strategies with special care for determining relationships among the used strategies and the measuring accuracy parameters.

Open access
Simplifications of the volumetric error model because of the structural loop of machine tools

Abstract

After many years of intensive work the international experts from ISO TC 39 published the technical report called ISO TR 16907 “Machine tools – numerical compensation of geometric errors”. This document defines the terminology, presents benefits and limitations of numerical compensation of machine tools’ and measuring machines’ errors. It gives machines manufacturers and users vital information about how to use numerical compensation. In the context of those types of compensation defined in ISO TR 16907, this article shows rules of selecting models of Volumetric Error for three-axis machine tools. What is more, this paper presents some principles of reduction of these proposed models because of the functional tasks for machine tools. One of the obtained results is an array of reduced models for three-axis machine tools. This array determines the degree of detail of the model and the experimental research program that needs to be carried out in order to determine the Volumetric Error distribution.

Open access
Alkali-silica Reaction in Finnish Concrete Structures

Abstract

Even though natural phenomena do not abide to borders, Finland has traditionally been considered an alkali-silica reaction (ASR) free country. This is due to exceptional quality of the mostly course crystalline igneous rocks. However, during the last few years dozens of cases of ASR have been reported. The scope of this study was to study the occurrence of ASR, and to find out the initiation time of the reaction in resent investigations of Finnish concrete structures. ASR is found occurring all over Finland. The reacting aggregates consist of rock types, which are considered relatively stable or low reacting in literature.

Open access
Comparison of selected surface topography parameters after the turning of Inconel 625 obtained by the additive techniques to the parameters of the material made by the traditional techniques

Abstract

The paper presents the possibilities of additive manufacturing of the selected alloy, Inconel, for production of ready-made elements. The results of surface topography examination of the material manufactured with the use of the device 557 RPMI working in the LDT technology (LDT = Laser Deposition Technology) have been compared to those of thecold drawn material. The surfacejust after manufacturing inthese two technologies has been compared to the one after machining by means of variable machining parameters. The surface roughness parameter, Sskis positive for all the surfaces of thesamplemade by the traditional technology, regardless of the feed. This means that most of the material is located close to the valleys. The surfaces are characterised by right-hand side asymmetry. In all the surfaces of the sample made by the additive technology, regardless of the feed value, the surface roughness parameter, Ssk, is negative, which means that most of the material is located close to the peaks.

Open access
Early Age Autogenous Shrinkage of Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Abstract

Concrete is often sensitive to cracking during the hardening process, and these cracks could be the result of early-age shrinkage. One method to reduce shrinkage is to add different types of fibres to concrete. The aim of this study was to study the effects of different types of fibres on the early-age autogenous shrinkage of concrete. Three different types of fibre materials were used in the research. A “Schleibinger Bending-drain” test setup was used to record early-age autogenous shrinkage of fresh concrete immediately after mixing. The results show that, a fibre dosage of 0.38% by volume was found to be effective in reducing the effects of early-age autogenous shrinkage of concrete.

Open access
Impact of Accelerated Carbonation on Microstructure and Phase Assemblage

Abstract

The paper summarizes preliminary results on characterization of the microstructure and phase assemblage of mortar and concrete samples containing Portland and Portland-fly ash cement carbonated at either natural conditions, 60% RH and 1% CO2, 90% RH and 5% CO2 or 60% RH and 100% CO2. Different characterization techniques were used: thermogravimetric analysis to study the solid phases, SEM-EDS point analysis to investigate the chemical composition of the solid phases, optical microscopy to investigate the microstructure, and cold water extraction to characterize the chemical composition of the pore solution. The combined results on microstructure and phase assemblage indicate that carbonation up to 5% CO2 appears representative for natural carbonation. Pore solution analysis revealed similar trends for the three accelerated carbonation conditions.

Open access