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Studies on the growth and characterization of L-cysteine hydrogen fluoride single crystal

Abstract

L-cysteine hydrogen fluoride (LCHF) single crystals were grown from aqueous solution. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR, and TG-DTA were used to test the grown crystals. The specimen dielectric and mechanical behaviors were also studied. Powder X-ray diffraction of the grown crystal was recorded and indexed. The optical properties of the LCHF crystal were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was found that the optical band gap of LCHF was 4.8 eV. The crystal functional groups were identified using FT-IR. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the LCHF was three times higher than that of KDP. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity were measured at different frequencies and temperatures.

Open access
Synthesis and characterization of binary and ternary nanocomposites based on TiO2, SiO2 and ZnO with PVA based template-free gel combustion method

Abstract

Binary and ternary nanocomposites based on TiO2, SiO2 and ZnO were synthesized by PVA-based template-free gel combustion method. The morphology and the particles sizes of the synthesized samples depended on some parameters including the initial concentrations of metal salts and PVA amount in the sol, solvent composition and solution pH. Effects of these parameters were investigated and optimized by using the Taguchi method. In the experimental design, the Taguchi L25 array was used to investigate six factors at five levels. The samples were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results showed that the present method can be used to synthesize TiO2/SiO2/ZnO ternary nanocomposite with an effective surface area of 0.3 m2 · g−1 and ZnO/TiO2, TiO2/SiO2, ZnO/SiO2 binary nanocomposites with an effective surface area of 234 m2 · g−1, 6 m2 · g−1 and 0.5 m2 · g−1, respectively. The ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite which was synthesized under the following experimental conditions: 2.5 wt.% Zn salt, 2.5 wt.% Ti salt, 2.0 wt.% PVA, pH = 1 and ethanol:water ratio 30:70 was selected by the Taguchi method as an optimum sample with the smallest particles (average diameter = 50 nm).

Open access
Synthesis, growth and characterization of semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal bis(thiourea) barium nitrate (BTBN) for frequency conversion

Abstract

A novel semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, bis(thiourea) barium nitrate (BTBN) was synthesized and grown by slow evaporation method. Structure of the new crystalline compound was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it showed that BTBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. The crystalline nature of the BTBN was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction study. Important functional groups of BTBN were identified by FT-IR spectroscopic analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study showed that the grown crystal is transparent in the entire visible region with low cut off wavelength of 304 nm. BTBN exhibits a SHG efficiency which is nearly 2.38 times higher than that of KDP. The BTBN crystal has high mechanical strength and belongs to soft category, which was confirmed by micorhardness study. The thermal stability of BTBN was determined from TGA and DTA thermal study which revealed that the BTBN crystal has thermal stability up to 243.1 °C. The surface properties and presence of elements was analyzed by SEM and EDAX study, respectively.

Open access
Synthesis of new mesostructured cellular foams (MCFs) with NaY zeolite and their application to sorption of thorium ions

Abstract

The paper presents the new way of preparation of MCF foams with NaY zeolite. Significant changes in the amount of micro and mesopores in relation to the amount of NaY zeolite and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) added during the synthesis was observed. It suggests the possibility of controlling the micro/mesopores ratio by applying the proposed method. Environmental aspects of using new MCF/NaY foams is related to the adsorption of thorium ions (Th+4). The term of “MCF/NaY materials” refers to the general name of the material without referring to the content and state of zeolite. The obtained materials were highly effective in relation to Th+4. The adsorption capacity was greater when the number of micropores was lower. The dependence of adsorption capacity of Th+4 ions on aluminum atoms content was also confirmed.

Open access
Synthesis of single-crystalline Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 nanocrystals by hydrothermal method

Abstract

PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The effect of NaOH concentration, reaction temperature and time on nucleation and growth of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals was investigated. As the 0.05 mol/L PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 precursors were heated at 200 °C for 21 h with NaOH concentration of 0.5 mol/L, the tetragonal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals were formed, and the grain size was more than 20 nm. With increasing the NaOH concentration from 0.5 to 1.5 mol/L, the grain size of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals decreased. When the precursors were heated at different temperatures (140 °C to 200 °C) for 21 h with 1.0 mol/L NaOH, single-phase PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals were obtained at 160 °C to 200 °C. With increasing the reaction temperature from 160 °C to 200 °C, the grains size of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals increased from 5 nm to 9 nm. When the precursors were heated at 160 °C in different reaction times from 6 h to 21 h, the evolution from amorphous to crystalline PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals in correlation with the reaction time was observed. Single crystalline PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals with narrow size distribution (from 5 nm to 9 nm) were synthesized by controlling the NaOH concentration, reaction temperature and time. The obtained results can find potential application in preparing PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films on flexible substrates.

Open access
Tapered fiber sensor in the near infrared wavelength

Abstract

Simulated transmission spectra for tapered fibers with no taper, one taper and two tapers in the near infrared wavelength range, calculated by Finite-Difference-Time-Domain method are currently presented. Transmission peak positions tend to shift to the shorter wavelength when the taper deformation is added to the fiber or the taper width gets narrower. The thickness sensitivity for the tapered structures with different taper thicknesses is about 2.28e-3 nm·µm−1. There is an interference structure in the electric field distribution images, which reveals in the fiber structures. The transmission spectra for the fiber without taper, one taper and two-tapered structures were simulated in near infrared wavelength by FDTD. The transmission spectra for tlated in near infrared wavelength by FDTD. The sensitivity of the fiber was about 50 nm × RIU−1 and it had better refractive index detection. The tapered fiber can be applied to the bio-chemical sensors and physical deformation testing.

Open access
Vibrational, electrical, dielectric and optical properties of PVA-LiPF6 solid polymer electrolytes

Abstract

Solid polymer electrolytes based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with LiPF6 have been prepared using solution casting technique. Electrical properties of prepared electrolyte films were analyzed using AC impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing salt concentration. The maximum conductivity of 8.94 × 10−3 S·cm−1 was obtained at ambient temperature for the film containing 20 mol% of LiPF6. The conductivity enhancement was correlated to the enhancement of available charge carriers. The formation of a complex between the polymer and salt was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The optical nature of the polymer electrolyte films was analyzed through UV-Vis spectroscopy.

Open access
Ab initio study of GdCo5 magnetic and magneto-optical properties

Abstract

The full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FLAPW) including the spin-orbit coupling has been used to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of GdCo5 compound. The calculations were performed within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) as well as Coulomb corrected LSDA + U approach. The study revealed that the LSDA + U method gave a better representation of the band structure, density of states and magnetic moments than LSDA. It was found that the spin magnetic moment of Co (2c) and Co (3g) atoms in the studied compound is smaller compared to the one in bulk Co. The optical and magneto-optical properties and the magneto-optical Kerr effect have also been investigated.

Open access
Adsorption and gas sensing properties of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles

Abstract

Spinel ferrite nanoparticles in the form CuFe2O4 were tested for gas sensing applications. Nanoparticles pressed in a disk form were used to construct conductometric gas sensors. The disk was placed between two electrical electrodes wherein the top electrode had a grid structure. The produced sensors were tested against H2S and H2 gases and they were found to be selective and sensitive to H2S concentration as low as 25 ppm. The composition of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The crystal structure was verified by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The observations obtained from the experiments demonstrated the high potential of using CuFe2O4 nanoparticles for H2S sensing applications.

Open access
Characterization of the native oxide on CdTe surfaces

Abstract

This study focuses on the description of oxidation of CdTe monocrystal surfaces after selective chemical etching. Measurements of surface morphology of the oxides occurring in short time are valuable for deeper understanding of the material degradation and fabrication of reliable devices with enhanced performance. The samples with (1 1 1) orientation were selectively etched and cleaned of oxide. Exposure of the oxide-free surfaces of CdTe to air at normal atmospheric conditions over 24 hours leads to an appearance of characteristic surface features. The oxidized surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The results indicate clear differences in the oxidation of Cd-terminated and Te-terminated surfaces.

Open access