Copper oxide and cobalt oxide (Co3O4, CuO) nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully prepared using microwave irradiation. The obtained powders of the nanocrystals (NCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained results confirm the presence of both nanooxides which have been produced during chemical precipitation using microwave irradiation. TEM micrographs have shown that the obtained nanocrystals are characterized by high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The results of X-ray diffraction confirmed those obtained from the transmission electron microscope. Optical absorption analysis indicated the direct band gap for both kinds of the nanocrystals.
Ayşe Evrim Bulgurcuoğlu, Yaşar Karabul, Mehmet Kiliç, Zeynep Güven Özdemir, Seda Erdönmez, Banu Süngü Misirlioğlu, Mustafa Okutan and Orhan İçelli
In this work, polypyrrole and polythiophene conducting polymers (CPs) have been synthesized and doped with volcanic basalt rock (VBR) in order to improve their dielectric properties for technological applications. The structure and morphology of the composites with different VBR doping concentrations were characterized by FT-IR and SEM analyses. The best charge storage ability was achieved for maximum VBR doping concentration (50.0 wt.%) for both CPs. Dielectric relaxation types of the composites were determined as non-Debye type due to non-zero absorption coefficient and observation of semicircles whose centers were below Z′ axis at the Nyquist plots. It was also ascertained that VBR doping makes the molecular orientation easier than for non-doped samples and reduced energy requirement of molecular orientation. In addition, AC conductivity was totally masked by DC conductivity for all samples at low frequency.
Simulated transmission spectra for tapered fibers with no taper, one taper and two tapers in the near infrared wavelength range, calculated by Finite-Difference-Time-Domain method are currently presented. Transmission peak positions tend to shift to the shorter wavelength when the taper deformation is added to the fiber or the taper width gets narrower. The thickness sensitivity for the tapered structures with different taper thicknesses is about 2.28e-3 nm·μm−1. There is an interference structure in the electric field distribution images, which reveals in the fiber structures. The transmission spectra for the fiber without taper, one taper and two-tapered structures were simulated in near infrared wavelength by FDTD. The transmission spectra for tlated in near infrared wavelength by FDTD. The sensitivity of the fiber was about 50 nm × RIU−1 and it had better refractive index detection. The tapered fiber can be applied to the bio-chemical sensors and physical deformation testing.
A. Sadoun, S. Mansouri, M. Chellali, N. Lakhdar, A. Hima and Z. Benamara
In this work, we have presented a theoretical study of Au/Ni/GaN Schottky diode based on current-voltage (I-V) measurement for temperature range of 120 K to 400 K. The electrical parameters of Au/Ni/GaN, such as barrier height (Φb), ideality factor and series resistance have been calculated employing the conventional current-voltage (I-V), Cheung and Chattopadhyay method. Also, the variation of Gaussian distribution (P (Φb)) as a function of barrier height (Φb) has been studied. Therefore, the modified () relation has been extracted from (I-V) characteristics, where the values of ΦB0 and have been found in different temperature ranges. The obtained results have been compared to the existing experimental data and a good agreement was found.
L-cysteine hydrogen fluoride (LCHF) single crystals were grown from aqueous solution. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR, and TG-DTA were used to test the grown crystals. The specimen dielectric and mechanical behaviors were also studied. Powder X-ray diffraction of the grown crystal was recorded and indexed. The optical properties of the LCHF crystal were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was found that the optical band gap of LCHF was 4.8 eV. The crystal functional groups were identified using FT-IR. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the LCHF was three times higher than that of KDP. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity were measured at different frequencies and temperatures.
Tahmineh Jalali, Abdolrasoul Gharaati and Mohammad Rastegar
In this paper, employing of one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals in infrared wavelengths range is considered. For this purpose, magnetophotonic multilayer structures, composed of magnetic defect layer surrounded by dielectric and MO Bragg mirrors, have been proposed. Ce:YIG with an optical thickness in the range of 0 to λs was used as a magnetic material. By using four by four transfer matrix method, the transmittance values and Faraday rotation (FR) angles of these structures were computed. The electric field distribution was obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM). By investigation of transmittance and FR angle of magnetophotonic crystals, it was possible to design the optimized structures with a rotation larger than 30 degrees and high transmittance. Such structures with a few micrometer thickness and fast magneto-optical (MO) responses have the potential to be used in MO devices like integrated photonic elements and sensors.
Solid polymer electrolytes based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with LiPF6 have been prepared using solution casting technique. Electrical properties of prepared electrolyte films were analyzed using AC impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing salt concentration. The maximum conductivity of 8.94 × 10−3 S·cm−1 was obtained at ambient temperature for the film containing 20 mol% of LiPF6. The conductivity enhancement was correlated to the enhancement of available charge carriers. The formation of a complex between the polymer and salt was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The optical nature of the polymer electrolyte films was analyzed through UV-Vis spectroscopy.
M. Mahdi, A. Djabri, M. M. Koc, R. Boukhalfa, M. Erkovan, Yu. Chumakov and F. Chemam
The full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FLAPW) including the spin-orbit coupling has been used to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of GdCo5 compound. The calculations were performed within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) as well as Coulomb corrected LSDA + U approach. The study revealed that the LSDA + U method gave a better representation of the band structure, density of states and magnetic moments than LSDA. It was found that the spin magnetic moment of Co (2c) and Co (3g) atoms in the studied compound is smaller compared to the one in bulk Co. The optical and magneto-optical properties and the magneto-optical Kerr effect have also been investigated.
Mohammad Abu Haija, Georgia Basina, Fawzi Banat and Ahmad I. Ayesh
Spinel ferrite nanoparticles in the form CuFe2O4 were tested for gas sensing applications. Nanoparticles pressed in a disk form were used to construct conductometric gas sensors. The disk was placed between two electrical electrodes wherein the top electrode had a grid structure. The produced sensors were tested against H2S and H2 gases and they were found to be selective and sensitive to H2S concentration as low as 25 ppm. The composition of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The crystal structure was verified by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The observations obtained from the experiments demonstrated the high potential of using CuFe2O4 nanoparticles for H2S sensing applications.
Dinara Sobola, Pavel Kaspar, Alois Nebojsa, Dušan Hemzal, Lubomír Grmela and Steve Smith
This study focuses on the description of oxidation of CdTe monocrystal surfaces after selective chemical etching. Measurements of surface morphology of the oxides occurring in short time are valuable for deeper understanding of the material degradation and fabrication of reliable devices with enhanced performance. The samples with (1 1 1) orientation were selectively etched and cleaned of oxide. Exposure of the oxide-free surfaces of CdTe to air at normal atmospheric conditions over 24 hours leads to an appearance of characteristic surface features. The oxidized surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The results indicate clear differences in the oxidation of Cd-terminated and Te-terminated surfaces.