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Strength and Deformation of Sand-Tire Rubber Mixtures (STRM): An Experimental Study

Abstract

Waste material such as used tires is increasing every year, which poses environmental problems. However, such material has been used in several geotechnical applications as alternative lightweight backfill in highway embankments and/or behind retaining walls, providing environmental, economic and technical benefits. These applications require knowledge of engineering properties of soil-tire rubber mixtures. The present study aims to show the possibility of tire rubber usage in sand by evaluating the shear strength and deformability of sand mixed with granulated rubber, in weight percentages between 0 and 50%. The tire rubber content was found to influence the stress-strain and deformation behavior of the mixtures. The shear strength of sand mixed with 10% or 20% tire rubber was higher than that measured for sand only. However, the trend for TRC = 30–50% was different. Samples with a rubber content of 30-50% exhibited a rapid decrease in the stress ratio compared with that of sand. The major principal strain at maximum stress ratio was found to increase with increasing tire rubber content. However, it was observed that the lateral strains (minor and intermediate principal strains) of samples reduced significantly with the addition of tire rubber to the sand.

Open access
Tests of steel arch and rock bolt support resistance to static and dynamic loading induced by suspended monorail transportation

Abstract

At present, the suspended monorail systems constitute a very common means of transportation in the Polish hard coal mines. The main advantages of the suspended monorail include the independence of the route from the working floor surface irregularities and the possibility to transport cargo of significant mass and size.

The masses and dimensions of machines and devices transported via monorail have increased considerably in recent times. This particularly concerns the transport of longwall system elements. In Poland, the maximum speed of suspended monorail travel is 2 m/s. Due to the fact that preparations are currently underway to increase the maximum speed above 2 m/s, it is necessary to inspect what influence it will have on work safety and mining support stability.

Current operational experience and tests have shown that dynamic loads induced by the suspended monorail transportation have a significant influence on the roadway support stability, working protection durability and on the monorail operators. This is particularly true during the emergency braking of a suspended monorail by means of a braking trolley, where the overloads reach 3g.

Bench tests of the selected steel arch and rock bolt support elements utilised in the Polish hard coal mines were conducted in order to determine the resistance of steel arch and rock bolt supports to static and dynamic loads.

The article presents the results of the tests conducted on a steel arch support in the form of the sliding joints of an ŁP/V29 yielding roadway support, which is commonly employed in the Polish hard coal mines. Tests of elements of the threaded bolts with trapezoidal threads over the entire rod length were conducted as well.

The conducted strength tests of steel arch and rock bolt support elements under static and dynamic loading have shown that dynamic loading has decisive influence on the support’s retaining of its stability. Support element stability decreases along with the increase of the impact velocity. This concerns both the steel arch support and the rock bolt support.

Open access
Complex analysis of uniaxial compressive tests of the Mórágy granitic rock formation (Hungary)

Abstract

Understanding the quality of intact rock is one of the most important parts of any engineering projects in the field of rock mechanics. The expression of correlations between the engineering properties of intact rock has always been the scope of experimental research, driven by the need to depict the actual behaviour of rock and to calculate most accurately the design parameters. To determine the behaviour of intact rock, the value of important mechanical parameters such as Young’s modulus (E), Poisson’s ratio (ν) and the strength of rock (σcd) was calculated. Recently, for modelling the behaviour of intact rock, the crack initiation stress (σci) is another important parameter, together with the strain (σ). The ratio of Young’s modulus and the strength of rock is the modulus ratio (M R), which can be used for calculations. These parameters are extensively used in rock engineering when the deformation of different structural elements of underground storage, caverns, tunnels or mining opening must be computed. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between these parameters for Hungarian granitic rock samples. To achieve this goal, the modulus ratio (M R = Ec) of 50 granitic rocks collected from Bátaapáti radioactive waste repository was examined. Fifty high-precision uniaxial compressive tests were conducted on strong (σc >100 MPa) rock samples, exhibiting the wide range of elastic modulus (E = 57.425–88.937 GPa), uniaxial compressive strength (σc = 133.34–213.04 MPa) and Poisson’s ratio (ν = 0.18–0.32). The observed value (M R = 326–597) and mean value of M R = 439.4 are compared with the results of similar previous researches. Moreover, the statistical analysis for all studied rocks was performed and the relationshipbetween M R and other mechanical parameters such as maximum axial strain (εa,max)for studied rocks was discussed.

Open access
Effective Width Rule in the Analysis of Footing on Reinforced Sand Slope

Abstract

This paper presents the results obtained from an experimental programme and numerical investigations conducted on model tests of strip footing resting on reinforced and unreinforced sand slopes. The study focused on the determination of ultimate bearing capacity of strip footing subjected to eccentric load located either towards or opposite to the slope facing. Strip footing models were tested under different eccentricities of vertical load. The obtained results from tests conducted on unreinforced sand slope showed that the increase in eccentricity of applied load towards the slope facing decreases the ultimate bearing capacity of footing. Predictions of the ultimate bearing capacity obtained by the effective width rule are in good agreement with those proposed from the consideration of total width of footing subjected to eccentric load. The ultimate bearing capacity of an eccentrically loaded footing on a reinforced sand slope can be derived from that of axially loaded footing resting on horizontal sand ground when adopting the effective width rule and the coefficient of reduction due to the slope. When increasing the distance between the footing border to the slope crest, for unreinforced and reinforced ground slope by geogrids, the ultimate bearing capacity of footing is no more affected by the slope ground.

Open access
Global Stability For Double-Diffusive Convection In A Couple-Stress Fluid Saturating A Porous Medium

Abstract

We show that the global non-linear stability threshold for convection in a double-diffusive couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium is exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. The optimal result is important because it shows that linearized instability theory has captured completely the physics of the onset of convection. It is also found that couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium is thermally more stable than the ordinary viscous fluid, and the effects of couple-stress parameter (F ) , solute gradient ( S f ) and Brinkman number ( D a ) on the onset of convection is also analyzed.

Open access
Analysis of thin-walled beams with variable monosymmetric cross section by means of Legendre polynomials

Abstract

This article deals with the vibrations of a nonprismatic thin-walled beam with an open cross section and any geometrical parameters. The thin-walled beam model presented in this article was described using the membrane shell theory, whilst the equations were derived based on the Vlasov theory assumptions. The model is a generalisation of the model presented by Wilde (1968) in ‘The torsion of thin-walled bars with variable cross-section’, Archives of Mechanics, 4, 20, pp. 431–443. The Hamilton principle was used to derive equations describing the vibrations of the beam. The equations were derived relative to an arbitrary rectilinear reference axis, taking into account the curving of the beam axis and the axis formed by the shear centres of the beam cross sections. In most works known to the present authors, the equations describing the nonprismatic thin-walled beam vibration problem do not take into account the effects stemming from the curving (the inclination of the walls of the thin-walledcross section towards to the beam axis) of the analysed systems. The recurrence algorithm described in Lewanowicz’s work (1976) ‘Construction of a recurrence relation of the lowest order for coefficients of the Gegenbauer series’, Applicationes Mathematicae, XV(3), pp. 345–396, was used to solve the derived equations with variable coefficients. The obtained solutions of the equations have the form of series relative to Legendre polynomials. A numerical example dealing with the free vibrations of the beam was solved to verify the model and the effectiveness of the presented solution method. The results were compared with the results yielded by finite elements method (FEM).

Open access
Experimental bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded foundation near a slope

Abstract

Based on the response of small-scale model square footing, the present paper shows the results of an experimental bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded square footing, near a slope sand bed. To reach this aim, a steel model square footing of (150 mm × 150 mm) and a varied sand relative density of 30%, 50% and 70% are used. The bearing capacity-settlement relationship of footing located at the edge of a slope and the effect of various parameters such as eccentricity (e) and dimensions report (b/B) were studied. Test results indicate that ultimate bearing capacity decreases with increasing load eccentricity to the core boundary of footing and that as far as the footing is distant from the crest, the bearing capacity increases. Furthermore, the results also prove that there is a clear proportional relation between relative densities –bearing capacity. The model test provides qualitative information on parameters influencing the bearing capacity of square footing. These tests can be used to check the bearing capacity estimated by the conventional methods.

Open access
Effectiveness of reinforcing an earth structure with a system of counterfort drains over a long-term use

Abstract

The paper evaluates the effectiveness of reinforcing a damaged earth structure with making counterfort drains in its slope. The system of counterfort drains changed the soil properties significantly over a long-term use. The evaluation was based on many years of field and laboratory tests and stability analysis. The field tests concerned the observation of N WST probing resistance change, and the laboratory tests concerned the change in soil consistency and water content. The paper presents the results of tests that were conducted over 13 years.

Open access
Experimental identification of modal parameters for the model of a building subjected to short-term kinematic excitation

Abstract

In this work, the input-output method of dynamic parameters' identification is experimentally tested. A method based on the transformation of a dynamic problem into a static problem by means of integration of the input and output signal was presented. The problem discussed in this article is the identification of the coefficients of stiffness matrices and eigenfrequencies of a discrete dynamic system subjected to kinematic input. The experimental analysis was carried out on a three-storey slab-and-column structure, which constitutes a physical model of a building. The vibrations of the model were excited kinematically by an earthquake simulator. The device has a computer-controlled, movable table top, which can move independently in three directions, that is, horizontally, vertically, and rotationally around the vertical axis.

The aim of the experimental studies presented in this work was to determine the dynamic parameters of the model (stiffness, natural frequencies) using the input-output method in the time domain. Moreover, the results obtained with this method were compared with the results of experimental modal analysis (EMA) in order to verify their correctness. It was assumed that the movement of the base is horizontal and occurs in one direction. Two short-term, irregular kinematic excitations of the construction were considered, and the selected results and conclusions from experimental analyses were presented in this work.

Open access
Numerical solution through mathematical modelling of unsteady MHD flow past a semi-infinite vertical moving plate with chemical reaction and radiation

Abstract

In the present manuscript, unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a moving porous semi-infinite vertical plate with time-dependent suction has been studied in the presence of chemical reaction and radiation parameters. Time-dependent partial differential equations in the dimensionless form are solved numerically through mathematical modelling in COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are obtained for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles at different times. Steady state results are also presented for different values of physical parameters. The parameters involved in the problem are useful to change the characteristics of velocity, heat transfer and concentration profiles. The numerical solution of partial differential equations involved in the problem is obtained without sacrificing the relevant physical phenomena.

Open access