Introduction. The basic purpose of this article is to present Jacob Levy Moreno’s psychodrama method as the psychotherapeutic technique useful in work with patients during individual and group psychotherapy.
Material and Method: The author presents the analysis of case studies of patients treated in individual and group psychotherapy. He instances the examples of psychodramatic work on the stage as well as monodramatic and reports their importance in the process of patient psychotherapy. He discusses the effects of these act ivities in the context of changes in the emotional and interpersonal functioning of patients.
Results: The given examples of monodrama and psychodramatic works illustrate the mechanisms of the changes offered by the method, e.g. insight, abreaction, acceptance of internal impulses, confrontation with the feelings of other people, training of alternative behaviors. In the article one can follow each subsequent step of analyzing intrapsychic conflicts of patients, which, thanks to the play on the stage, can be named and experienced by them.
Conclusions: Psychodrama, used in the psychotherapeutic work of the group and in individual work with the patient (in the form of a monodrama), gives great opportunities to broaden the insight of the patient into very complicated internal mechanisms of conflicts and deficits. Psychotherapist - leader encourages patients to be creative and to spontaneous development of their blocked personality elements. The specificity of psychodrama is a relatively quick resolution of many years of ongoing conflict and permanent reparation of traumatic experiences, even from early childhood.
Positive psychology directs its research interests primarily to healthy people. The most important goal is to build a positive attitude towards yourself and the surrounding world. Recently, positive psychology has set a new area of research interest, which is clinical psychology. In recent years, several positive psychotherapy programs have been developed for people with schizophrenia experience. The article presents the latest trends in positive psychotherapy for people with schizophrenia. They involve taking into account the individual differences of each patient and the specificity of his / her psychopathology. As far as the therapeutic goals are concerned, there are interventions focused on strategies for enhancing positive emotions and wellbeing or the method of activating the strengths of character. Taking into account the methods of therapeutic work, they can be divided into training methods or those of the behavioral-cognitive psychotherapy as well as those that take into account the various aspects of meditation. The article presents the distribution of therapeutic programs in terms of the range of therapeutic goals in which the most important are: intensification of positive experiences, building of strengths of character and well-being. Therapeutic programs have been shown to focus not only on breaking down negative attitudes towards one’s own illness and life, but also on those that try to deal with the unsolved schizophrenia problem - negative symptoms.
Piotr Boguta, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Paulina Wróbel-Knybel, Agnieszka Biała-Kędra and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
Introduction: Warfarin has been considered as a “gold standard” in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic events since 1954. Since the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants in the last few years (NOAC-Non-Vitamin K antagonist Oral Anticoagulants) prescriptions volume for apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban have been gradually surpassing warfarin. The benefits include: anticoagulation from day one, fixed daily dosing, elimination for the need of international normalised ratio (INR) monitoring, fewer interactions with food and co-administered medicines with reduced risk of bleeding and better overall life quality.
Objectives: Assessing evidence for the safe use of Non-vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants (NOAC) with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) and Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI).
Method: Review of literature published between 2014 and 2016 was made using the key words: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor, Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors, apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, bleeding, interaction, depression with time description from 2014 to 2018. Evidence within the literature was then compared with guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK), British National Formulary (UK), Clinical Excellence Commission (Australia), Thrombophilia and Anticoagulation Clinic (USA) and Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPC).
Results: 1. Serotonin plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis. Use of SSRI/SNRI compromises its platelet reuptake increasing risk of bleeding. 2. Increased tolerability and safety of NOAC over Warfarin, although caution is advised when NOAC is used with SSRI/SNRI with less evidence suggesting pharmacodynamic interactions. 3. It is not recommended to use NOAC with strong CYP and P-gp inhibitors.
Conclusions: With limited literature evidence, caution is advised when co-prescribed NOACs with SSRI/SNRI, especially with other cofactors and interacting medicines further increasing risk of bleeding.
Urszula Fałkowska, Katarzyna Adamczyk, Dorota Adamczyk, Ewelina Soroka, Véronique Petit and Marcin Olajossy
Introduction: The development of biological sciences, as well as cultural and civilizational changes have led to the emergence of practice within the medicine of science, called psychiatry. Already at the turn of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, Karl Jaspers - a German scholar - father of psychopathology - in the work “Allgemeine Psychopathologie” crystallized his intuitions in the field of psychopathology, which classifies and describes states that are deviations from the physiological mental state of a human being.
Material and method: his paper reviews available literature to approximate the symptoms of the most interesting psychopathological syndromes in psychiatry such as: Clerambault syndrome, Otheller syndrome, Cotard syndrome, Ekboma syndrome and Folie à deux.
Results: A multitude of psychopathological syndromes results from the wealth of survival of psychiatric patients. They represent the delusions of different contents that develop in a primitive way or as a consequence of other types of disorders. Psychopathological teams have been inspiring the poets and directors for centuries. The relationship between psychiatry and culture, film and literature undoubtedly testifies to its interdisciplinary nature.
Discussion: Despite the passage of time, the descriptions of these syndromes with a rich historical description, symptomatology and criteria have not lost their relevance and are still a clinical reality.
Aneta Gerhant, Ewa Krzewicka-Romaniuk, Dagna Siedlecka, Magdalena Derewianka-Polak and Marcin Olajossy
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the range of socio-demographic variables, selected clinical variables, temperament and character traits, coping with stress strategies and the level of aggression in alcohol addicts with or without a history of suicide attempt(s).
Methods: The study involved 90 people addicted to alcohol, treated in inpatient alcohol dependence treatment program. In order to collect data on socio - demographic variables and selected clinical variables, a self-made questionnaire was used. The severity of alcohol dependence was verified using the MAST and SADD scales. Characteristics of temperament and character were examined with the TCI questionnaire. The BPAQ and COPE questionnaires were used to examine the level of aggression and styles of coping with stress.
Results:Out of 90 subjects with alcohol dependence syndrom, 20% had attempted suicide in the past. The respondents with a history of suicide attempts were statistically significantly younger, were characterized by a younger age of alcohol drinking initiation and the initiation of regular alcohol drinking, and a greater severity of alcohol dependence in the MAST and SADD scales. A significantly larger percentage of respondents who had attempted suicide inflicted self-injury in the past, used other psychoactive substances as well as hypnotics and sedatives. The subjects with a suicide attempt in the interview obtained statistically significantly higher scores in terms of the level of aggression, harm avoidance and self-directedness, and more often used the style of coping with stress based on avoidance and accepting the situation.
Conclusions: The obtained results correspond with data available in the literature and may provide a foundation for theoretical models explaining the phenomenon of suicidal behavior in alcohol addicts as well as for suicide prevention programs in this group of patients.
Małgorzata Futyma-Jędrzejewska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz and Ewelina Drzał
Pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood are new situations for women and require adjustment. Women suffering from schizophrenia require special attention due to the course of the disease. Physiological changes that occur in the body during pregnancy may be unacceptable for women suffering from schizophrenia. They may delusively deny the existence of the pregnancy, lead an unhealthy lifestyle (stimulants, poor diet, lack of gynaecological check-ups), which in turn causes an increased risk of complications. In the research conducted so far, it has been proven that three kinds of complications are associated with schizophrenia: complications concerning pregnancy itself (bleeding, diabetes, Rh-incompatibility, pre-eclampsia), intrauterine growth restriction (low birth weight, congenital malformations, small head circumference) and complications regarding labour (uterine atony, asphyxia, emergency Caesarean section). The course of the labour itself in this specific group of patients has not yet been sufficiently examined. It has also been proven that perinatal complications are one of the factors determining an increased risk of schizophrenia.
Aleksandra Iwanicka, Joanna Iwanicka and Anna Urbańska
The aim of the article is to point out to the specificity and difficulties an expert psychologist faces while producing a court expertise in family and guardianship cases. Such a diagnosis is prepared at the request of a family court. The questions asked by the court in family and guardianship cases determine the range and aim of diagnosis including the type of examined case. Having considered the court’s questions, a psychologist formulates hypotheses and operationalizes variables. This article will present the main areas of problems which arise while developing opinions in family and guardianship cases. The two main issues will be discussed: the range of an expert psychologist’s competences in the light of the court’s expectations frequently exceeding an expert’s capabilities and the impact of the choice of research methods on the quality of an opinion issued to obtain the final ruling in the court case.
Żaneta Brudkowska, Małgorzata Tomczyk, Katarzyna Jusiak, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz and Ewa Rudnicka-Drożak
Introduction: Beta blockers are mainly used in treating cardiovascular diseases. However, it has been observed that these drugs have also an anxiolytic potential. Over the years, a number of clinical trials have been conducted aimed at determining the effectiveness of beta blockers in treating anxiety disorders.
The aim of the article: The main objective of the article is to present the significance and position of adrenolytic drugs in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders on the basis of available literature. Moreover, the authors also decided to take into account the data from current research results, considering the problem of side effects of using adrenolytic drugs - especially the controversial reports on their effect on the development of affective disorders.
Method: An analysis was conducted of articles from Medline/PubMed database, selected on the basis of the following key words: anxiety disorders, beta blockers, adrenolytic drugs, as well as on the basis of their dates of publication: 1960-2017. In order to conduct a reliable and complete review of literature, the authors decided to include works from quite an extended period of time. The articles included in the review were published in Polish and English.
Results: The review of articles concerning the treatment of anxiety disorders clearly suggests that propranolol is effective in reducing the frequency of panic attacks and the tendency for avoidance behavior in patients with agoraphobia. Other studies report on potential benefits in terms of early interventional prevention and treating posttraumatic stress disorder with propranolol. However, there is lack of randomized clinical trials concerning the therapeutic effect of other adrenolytic drugs in treating anxiety disorders. Early research works reported that (mainly lipophilic) beta blockers may have a depressogenic effect; however, the latest studies have not confirmed it.
The contemporary research on the therapeutic potential of beta blockers in treating anxiety disorders is insufficient. What seems to be most promising, however, are reports concerning the desirable effects of using adrenolytic drugs in treating posttraumatic stress disorder, which implicates the necessity of conducting further research verifying the validity of their application.
In creating his Psychophysiological Theory, Jan Mazurkiewicz transplanted John Hughlings Jackson’s method into the field of psychiatry. Like his precursor, he distinguished four evolutionary levels, but this time with regard to mental activity. According to Mazurkiewicz’s approach, disease is the reverse of evolution. Doing damage to the highest evolutionary level, it allows evolutionarily lower levels to take control of the patient’s psyche. Distorted by the etiological factor, the lower mental levels manifest as mental disease. In his Psychophysiological Theory, Mazurkiewicz distinguishes three types of dissolution: intra-level dissolution (psychoneuroses), slow dissolution or dissociation proper (schizophrenia), and rapid, delirium-like dissolution (impaired consciousness). Kaczyński noted that, based on an in-depth analysis of the phylogenetic and ontogenetic development of the successive evolutionary levels of the nervous system, Mazurkiewicz transposed the principles of the Jacksonian concept of hierarchical evolution – dissolution. Within a dozen or so years from birth to maturity, the process of evolution of mankind is recapitulated, with the speed of lightning, in an individual – from instincts, which are phylogenetically the oldest, to the highest functions of the frontal lobes. The present paper makes mention of research conducted at Lublin’s Department of Psychiatry which expands on Mazurkiewicz’s theory.
Paulina Wróbel-Knybel, Michał Flis, Rafał Dubiel and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
Introduction: Sleep paralysis (SP) is a condition that widely occurs among people all over the world. It has been known for thousands of years and is rooted in the culture of many countries. It arouses strong emotions, though still little is known about it. The clinical picture of the disorder can be very diverse. It is often accompanied by hypnopompic and hypnagogic hallucinations, somatic complaints and the feeling of intense anxiety. A feeling of paralysis in the body with inhibited consciousness is always observed with the experience. SP pathophysiology is not fully understood, however, most theories explaining this phenomenon are based on the assumption that it results from dysfunctional overlap of REM sleep and wakefulness. It is experienced by healthy people, but it is more often associated with somatic and mental disorders, which is why it is becoming an object of interest for researchers.
Aim: The aim of this work is to present the most important information about the disorder known as sleep paralysis - its history, cultural context, pathophysiology, prevalence, symptomatology, coexistence with other somatic and mental disorders as well as diagnostics and available forms of prevention and treatment.
Materials and methodology: The available literature was reviewed using the Google Scholar bibliographic databases searching the following keywords: sleep paralysis, REM sleep parasomnias, sleep disorder, night terrors and time descriptors: 1980-2018.
Results 1. Sleep paralysis has already been described in antiquity, and interpretations related to its occurrence are largely dependent on culture and beliefs.
2. Symptomatology of the disorder is very diverse: both mental and somatic symptoms are present.
3. The pathophysiology of the disorder has not been fully explained. The basis of most theories regarding sleep paralysis is the assumption that it results from the dysfunctional overlap of REM sleep and wakefulness.
4. The prevalence of SP at least once in a lifetime is 7.6% in the general population, although it is estimated that it is much more frequent in people with various mental and somatic disorders.
5. Treatment of SP is associated with a change in lifestyle and the use of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.