Browse

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 121 items for :

  • Biotechnology x
  • Microbiology and Virology x
Clear All
Open access

I. Šulla, V. Balik, S. Horňák and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Severe spinal cord injuries (SCI), causing physical handicaps and accompanied by many serious complications, remains one of the most challenging problems in both, human and veterinary health care practices. The central nervous system in mammals does not regenerate, so the neurological deficits in a dog following SCI persists for the rest of its life and the affected animals display an image of permanent suffering. Diagnostics are based on: neurological examination, plain x-rays of vertebral column, x-rays of the vertebral column following intrathecal administration of a water-soluble contrast medium (myelography), x-rays of the vertebral column following epidural administration of a contrast medium (epidurography), computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, only limited therapeutic measures are available for the dogs with SCIs. They include: the administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) during the acute stage; early spinal cord decompression; stabilisation of vertebral fractures or luxations; prevention and treatment of complications, and expert rehabilitation. Together with the progress in the understanding of pathophysiologic events occurring after SCI, different therapeutic strategies have been instituted, including the local delivery of MPSS, the utilisation of novel pharmacological agents, hypothermia, and stem/precursor cell transplantation have all been tested in the experimental models and preclinical trials with promising results. The aim of this review is the presentation of the generally accepted methods of diagnostics and management of dogs with SCIs, as well as to discuss new therapeutic modalities. The research strategy involved a PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science literature search from January 2001 to December 2017 using the term “spinal cord injury”, in the English language literature; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.

Open access

I. Šulla, V. Balik, S. Horňák and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) in dogs are not frequent, but they are serious pathological conditions accompanied with high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of SCI involves a primary insult, disrupting axons, blood vessels, and cell membranes by mechanical force, or causes tissue necrosis by ischemia and reperfusion. The primary injury is followed by a cascade of secondary events, involving vascular dysfunction, edema formation, continuing ischemia, excitotoxicity, electrolyte shifts, free radical production, inflammation, and delayed apoptotic cell death. The most frequent cause of SCI in dogs is an acute intervertebral disc extrusion, exogenous trauma or ischemia. Neurological symptomatology depends on the location, size and the type of spinal cord lesions. It is characterized by transient or permanent, incomplete or complete loss of motor, sensory, autonomic, and reflex functions caudal to the site of the lesion. In a case of partial spinal cord (SC) damage, one of the typical syndromes develops (e. g. Brown-Séquard syndrome, central SC syndrome, ventral SC syndrome, dorsal SC syndrome, conus medullaris syndrome, or traumatic cauda equina syndrome). The severe transversal spinal cord lesion in the cervical region causes paresis or plegia of all four extremities (tetraparesis, tetraplegia); in thoracic or lumbosacral region, paresis or plegia of the pelvic extremities (paraparesis, paraplegia), i. e. sensory-motor deficit, urinary and foecal incontinence and sexual incompetence. The central nervous system in mammals does not regenerate, so the neurological deficit in dogs following severe SCI persists for the rest of their lives and animals display an image of permanent suffering. The research strategy presented here involved a PubMed, Medline (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science literature search from Januray 2001 to December 2017 using the term “canine spinal cord injury” in the English language; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.

Open access

C. O. Aiki-Raji, A. I. Adebiyi and D. O. Oluwayelu

Abstract

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is recognized as one of the most important agents of reproductive disorders in gilts and sows worldwide. It is associated with considerable economic losses in the swine industry due to the unthriftiness, and variable morbidity and mortality it causes in pigs. In spite of the devastation caused by this virus to the global pig industry, there is little or no report of its occurrence in Nigeria. Hence, a slaughterhouse based survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of PCV2 infections in pigs in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Using a commercial ELISA kit, 364 pig sera collected from a major abattoir were screened for IgG antibodies against PCV2. The overall prevalence of anti-PCV2 antibodies in the pigs was 1.4 % (5/364), with more female pigs (4/237, 1.7 %) being seropositive than males (1/127, 0.8 %). Since there is no routine vaccination against this swine disease in Nigeria, thus the antibodies detected in the pig sera indicated a natural exposure to the virus. The absence of clinical disease in the pigs also suggests the possibility of a carrier status for these animals and shows that they could serve as hosts for the perpetuation of the disease. These findings underscore the need for continuous surveillance for PCV2 among pigs in Nigeria in order to determine its contribution to production losses incurred in the Nigerian swine industry and aid the development of prevention and control strategies against the disease.

Open access

D. Marcinčáková, M. Falis, P. Schusterová, P. Váczi, S. Marcinčák and J. Legáth

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective role of Agrimonia eupatoria L. in heavy metal induced nephrotoxicity. Rabbit kidney epithelial cells (RK13) were used as the model cell line. They were exposed to three different heavy metal compounds: cadmium chloride dihydrate CdCl2.2H2O (15 and 20 mg.l−1), potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7 (1, 10 mg.l−1), and zinc sulfate heptahydrate ZnSO4.7H2O (50, 150 mg.l−1) simultaneously with agrimony (ethanolic extract, 100 mg.l−1). The cell response was recorded using the xCELLigence system or real-time cell analysis (RTCA) as a cell index (CI) and expressed as cell adherence (%) compared to control cells without treatment. The potential nephroprotective effects were recorded in cells treated with chromium (1 a 10 mg.l−1) and agrimony, where the cell adherence increased from 95.11 ± 11.25 % and 7.24 ± 0.33 % to 103.26 ± 1.23 % and 68.54 ± 4.89 % (P < 0.05) respectfully and also with a combination of agrimony and zinc (150 mg.l−1), where the adherence increased from 57.45 ± 1.98 % to 95.4 ± 6.95 %. During the cell exposure to cadmium in combination with agrimony, the protective effect was not recorded; the adherence of cells was even decreased (P < 0.05).

Open access

A. Hudák, M. Dudová, T. Hudáková, M. Holub and L. Takáč

Abstract

In the recreation area Anička in Košice, there is a mineral spring that inhabitants call Gajdovka. It has been used with several breaks since the 19th century. Mineral water from this spring is specific by the presence of arsenic the concentration of which often exceeds the permitted limit level. This study focused on the analysis of the mineral composition of the spring water. Chemical and microbiological analysis was made in the years 2013—2015. In 2014, the mineral water Gajdovka was regularly monitored throughout the year with respect to the concentrations of arsenic, iron and hydrogen sulphide levels and water levels in the nearby river. The following mean concentrations were determined: total arsenic 0.063 mg.dm−3; iron 0.275 mg.dm−3; hydrogen sulfide 4.608 mg.dm−3. The concentration of iron was below the limit, while the limit for As(III) was exceeded in 2014 for 7 months. The statistical analysis showed that the season affects significantly the level of H2S and Fe and the water levels in the nearby river.

Open access

J. Staničová, K. Želonková, V. Verebová, B. Holečková and J. Dianovský

Abstract

The interactions between the fungicide tebuconazole and human serum albumin were investigated using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence quenching of the protein by the tebuconazole molecule was a result of the formation of a ligand-protein complex with a binding constant of 8.51×103 l.mol−1 and the number of binding sites in the macromolecule was close to 1. These findings demonstrated the fact that although the binding affinity of tebuconazole to the protein may be slight, it was very similar to other triazole fungicides. In addition, tebuconazole stabilized the α-helical secondary structure of the human serum albumin due to the increase of the α-content in the protein macromolecule.

Open access

S. Suleman, M. S. Khan, X. Q. Zhu, A. M. Dharejo, E. C. Uwalaka, M. Shah and O. A. Adediran

Abstract

A new species of the genus Echinochasmushas been described from the small intestine of the black kite (Milvus m. migrans) collected from Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and identified as E. swabiensis n. sp. The new species is different from its congeners in its body size; it has 22 collar spines which includes two corner spines on one side, four on the other side and eight marginal plus ventral spines on each side. There aretegumental-scale like spines interspersed on the anterior margin of the ventral sucker with a smaller, terminal oral sucker. The pharynx is nearly twice as large as the oral sucker, while the ventral sucker is nearly six times as large as the oral sucker. The suckers’ width ratio is 1 : 4.7 to 1 : 5.6. The vitelline follicles are compact and denser at the lateral sides masking the caeca. This species has been added to the record of trematodes circulating among avian species, especially in the study area.

Open access

E. Böhmová, E. Čonková, Z. Sihelská and M. Harčárová

Abstract

Yeasts from the genus Malassezia belongs to normal commensal skin flora of warm-blooded vertebrates. These yeasts may act as opportunistic pathogens and cause skin diseases in humans and animals under certain conditions. The identification of Malassezia species is based on the phenotypic or genotypic diagnostics. The methods used for the phenotypic identification is determined by: the growth on Sabouraud agar, growth on selective media (Leeming-Notman agar, Dixon agar, Chrom Malassezia agar), the ability to utilise different concentrations of Tween, monitoring of the growth on CEL agar (soil enriched with castor oil) and TE agar (Tween-esculine agar), and the catalase test. The genotypic identification uses molecular methods like: the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment lenght polymorphism (AFLP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the DNA sequence analysis.

Open access

P. Váczi, E. Čonková, D. Marcinčáková and Z. Sihelská

Abstract

The antifungal activities of 14 selected essential oils (at the concentrations of 0.5 %, 5 %, and 30 %) against the yeast Malassezia pachydermatis (18 isolates and one reference strain) were investigated. The isolates of M. pachydermatis were obtained from swabs of external ear canals of healthy dogs using sterile swabs. The determination of the efficacy was based on a modified disc diffusion method (CLSI M44-A2). The best antifungal efficacy (100 %) was shown by clove, cinnamon and oregano at the concentration of 30 %; less significant efficacy was shown at the concentration of 5 % (38 %, 33 % and 5 %, respectively). Satureja inhibited the growth of Malassezia (efficacy of 16 %) only at the concentration of 30 %. Bergamot, lavender, juniper, cedar, sage, tea-tree, grapefruit, pine, chamomile and yarrow essential oils were not able to form inhibition zones as defined in the methodology used (greater or equal to 15 mm) in all concentrations used. Therefore, according to the interpretation criterion, they were considered ineffective. In all cases, the concentration of 0.5 % was not effective against the growth of Malassezia yeasts.

Open access

J. Šimková, M. Milkovičová, M. Valko-Rokytovská, Z. Kostecká, E. Bencúrová, L. Pulzová, Ľ. Čomor and M. R. Bhide

Abstract

Nickel-binding proteins play an important role in the biological processes and can also be utilized in several fields of biotechnology. This study was focused on analysing the nickel-binding proteins from the blood sera of humans (Homo sapiens), cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis orientalis), fallow deer (Dama dama), horses (Equus ferus caballus), pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), wildboars (Sus scrofa), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). The presence of higher abundance proteins in the blood serum, such as albumins, may mask the detection of lower abundance proteins. The samples were depleted from these higher abundance proteins to facilitate the detection of those with lower abundance. For the characterization of these proteins, nickel cations bound to tetradentate ligand nitrilotriacetic acid(Ni-NTA)immobilized on agarose beads were incubated with animal sera to capture nickel-binding proteins and subsequently the proteins were eluted and fractionated on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed a set of nickel-binding proteins with various molecular weights within different animal species. A unique ~42 kDa nickel-binding protein in the brown bear serum, which was not present in any of the other species, was further characterized and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). This protein was identified as ahaptoglobin-like protein. This result may provide some valuable clue for the physiological difference in the metal binding proteins in the serum of Ursus arctos and other animals.