Das »Jahrbuch für europäische Verwaltungsgeschichte« (JEV)
Erk volkmar Heyen
Das Jahrbuch für europäische Verwaltungsgeschichte entstand als Netzwerkprojekt unter der Leitung des Autors in den späten 1980er Jahren mit dem Ziel, einen interdisziplinären, historisch orientierten Zugang zur wissenschaftlichen Auseinandersetzung mit Staat und Verwaltung institutionell zu verankern. Wie das JEV, so ist auch schon meine frühere Beschäftigung mit der europäischen Verwaltungsgeschichte aus einem wissenschaftshistorischen Interesse und einem weiter greifenden, politischen und kulturellen Interesse an Frankreich erwachsen. Um diese Besonderheit verständlich zu machen, möchte ich auf die Entstehung und Entfaltung dieser Interessen etwas näher eingehen, zumal dabei auch Personen und Institutionen hervortreten, die zu dem wissenschaftlichen Netzwerk gehören, mit dessen Hilfe ich das JEV betreiben konnte (I.). Danach werde ich auf die eigentliche Gründungsphase des Jahrbuchs zurückkommen und anschließend den Blick auf seine Arbeitsweise richten (II.).
Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff
The central question on our article is: to what extent were the nature and content of merit principles for Dutch civil service systems influenced by the (changing) decentralized unitary state, during the periods of the Night Watch, Welfare and Enabling State between 1814 and 2016? In accordance with the decentralized unitary structure as originally devised by the 19th century Dutch statesman Johan Rudolf Thorbecke, personnel management and regulations were (and are) considered the prime responsibility of each (level of) government. Our article shows how neither in past nor present have there been hierarchical relationships in this area, with the exception of centralized wage settlements after the Second World War until the 1990s. In addition, we argue that civil service requirements have altered due to societal and public sector change. Those changes have become visible in a transition from a Night Watch to a Welfare State and more recently an Enabling State. This transition not only influenced what was expected of the role and position of civil servants at different levels of government in the decentralized unitary state. It also had an effect on what has over time been required of civil servants in terms of knowledge, capabilities, attitude, skills and experience. The article explains how the Thorbeckian decentralized unitary state provided a lasting but flexible format to accommodate these civil service system adjustments.
Anna Gianna Manca
The paper deals with the question of the administrative districts in an overall Prussian perspective and emphasizes, above all, the central political role played by the provincial districts and their main authorities within the spaces of the state and of administrative activity. On this basis, it will be possible to adequately appreciate the revolutionary but unsuccessful attempt to abolish them in 1848 by the liberaldemocratic wing of the Constitutional Commission of the Prussian National Assembly, as has not yet been accomplished within the existing historiography.
First, the origins of the spatial-territorial division of Prussia existing around the middle of the 19th century are discussed. Within this framework special attention has been paid to the introduction of a provincial division, which led to that organization of internal administration into four instances under the minister (provinces, governmental districts, districts, municipalities) which was a peculiarity of the Prussian political and administrative spatial division compared with the other states of the German Confederation. Questions such as those of the basic division of the state’s space are so radical that they are usually raised with some prospect of success only at the foundation of states or during revolutions. Immediately afterwards, they tend to be included in the list of ›depoliticized technicalities‹, although they retain their fundamental importance for ensuring the political and administrative continuity of the state.
Behörden und Antragsteller/innen im Streit um Erwerbsmöglichkeiten
State social policies and the related administrative practices have contributed substantially since the end of the 19th century to producing and normalising new forms of work in Europe. This has given rise to new rights and obligations and changed the relationship between a state and its citizens. The article looks at struggles on the opportunities and requirements for legally practising a trade in Austria in the period from 1918 to 1938, focusing on procedures for granting licences to trade. Besides the applicant and the Office of Trade, numerous other authorities (with different and often opposing interests), organisations and individuals could be directly or indirectly involved in these procedures. The article presents the findings of a systematic comparison of various attempts to obtain a licence to trade, highlighting the different situations and interactions in which arguments over the legitimacy of a given trade took place. The focus is on trades with little or no need for capital, premises, materials or formal qualifications, the licensing of which was nevertheless frequently dependent on a lengthy and laborious process of assessment. The methods by which applicants endeavoured to approach the authorities (or indeed avoid them) are outlined, along with how they made use of official categories, how they pursued their application with varying degrees of persistence and success, the information and arguments they put forward, and ultimately the role they played in shaping public administration (and thus also the opportunities and requirements for practising a trade).
The article presents a new research agenda which links the composition of the British colonial administrations in the mid-20th century with the economic development of former colonies. It presents the first findings taken from the biographical records of over 14,000 senior colonial officers which served in 46 colonies between 1939 and 1966. Legal transplanting, i.e. the process of copying foreign law into countries lacking them, is discussed as a common practice in international development efforts and as new approach in understanding long-term economic development. The approach puts emphasis on the senior bureaucrats who are in charge of institutional copying. Successful transplanting requires very specific training and personal experience in the receiving society. Colonial officers with such characteristics served in the British colonial administrations while decolonization provides a historic period of intensified legal and institutional transplanting.
The French Consulate in Salonica in the 19th Century
Consulates, both in the 19th century and today, exist in a sort of hybrid space: Established by one sovereign entity in the territory of another, on the basis of exterritorial concessions, they depend on not one but two sets of legislation without being wholly defined by either one. This paper takes a local approach to a global phenomenon by considering the French consulate in Salonica (Thessaloniki) from the late 18th to the early 20th century from the perspective of a ›history of administrative reality‹. It shows how this consulate was located at the intersection of two state-building projects: those of France and the Ottoman Empire, both vying for control of the local space in which the consulate was active. While the French state strove to integrate its consulates into the internal logic of its expanding bureaucracy, and thus to extend its legal space beyond the borders of its own territory, the modernizing efforts of the Empire tended to reduce the immunities of exterritorial institutions with a view toward homogenizing and effectively controlling imperial space. The gaps and conflicts between the rival state-building agendas, as well as local factors beyond the control of either, created a local reality in which the consular personnel had the challenge and the opportunity to shape their own space of action. In this way, the consular district appears as a spatial entity somewhat resembling a state in miniature.
Die Einrichtung der staatlichen Bezirksverwaltung in den Kernländern der Habsburgermonarchie nach 1848. Ein Problemaufriss
This article deals with the introduction of state administrative institutions at the district level in the Habsburg Monarchy and their several reforms in the period from 1848 to 1868. It analyzes these processes in a spatial perspective and with a focus on implementation. First, it shows that new spaces of administration were constructed on several levels, especially the districts themselves and the district offices. This was done not by unilaterally expunging earlier forms of spatial organization, but rather in complex interplay with them. Numerous groups of actors were involved in negotiating this, including not only politicians and bureaucrats, but also members of the general population in various roles. In this sense there was a substantial component of ›state-building from below‹ in the creation of the district administrations. Finally, some consequences arising from the new organization of space are outlined, from the quantitative increase in state administrative activity via improved possibilities for production and use of spatial knowledge to advances in the construction of the territory as a unitary space of the state.
Griechisch-orthodoxe Stifterinnen und Stifter zwischen Wien und dem Osmanischen Reich (1750–1918)
Nathalie Patricia Soursos and Anna Ransmayr
From the late 18th century to the end of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1918, Vienna’s two Greek Orthodox communities administered a remarkable number of endowments. By founding endowments the benefactors acted between several spaces and subspaces. The transgression of boundaries by endowments addressed to the benefactors’ hometowns in the Ottoman Empire as well as the instability of these boundaries in the 19th century led to various problems in the interaction with the state authorities. But also endowments given to Viennese institutions were sometimes problematic, depending on the benefactors’ character as either Ottoman or Habsburg subjects. In contrast to Ottoman subjects, Habsburg subjects could also endow real estate and thus show their integration into the Viennese bourgeoisie. In this article we discuss the legal frameworks for the administration of endowments in the two Greek communities in Vienna as well as its practical realization in interaction with the Habsburg authorities.
This article explores how French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of fields, by encouraging a critical analysis of what the state does and produces, can bring a new perspective to studying the history of public administration. To do so, it explains how the theory can be used to perform historical analysis of public administration, and examine the case of the introduction of the merit system in the Canadian federal public administration to illustrate its perspective. The article concludes that the interplay among the theory’s core concepts – capital, field, and habitus – offers a reconceptualization of the study of administrative history that integrates historical, social, and political elements.