Browse

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 596 items for :

  • Business and Economics x
Clear All
Open access

Jana Spilková

Abstract

Traditional, ‘post-traditional’ large-scale, and ‘alternative’ food shopping options are used in this paper to address the following questions: Who are the customers of these different retail formats? Is it possible to discern certain types of shopper according to retail formats? Do alternative food networks attract significantly different consumers than traditional forms and large-scale outlets? Relatively unique data collected in an omnibus survey by The Centre for Independent Public Opinion Research during 2014, 2015 and 2017 (n = 3,168) are used in this analysis. The consumption habits and preferences of a representative sample of the Czech population were subject to investigation. Results are presented mainly by descriptive statistics and the testing of hypotheses on the similarity or difference of given shopper populations by contingency analysis (associations between characteristics use contingency coefficients). A profile of shoppers according to food provisioning options is presented, and demographic, socio-economic and geographic factors influencing current trends in the shopping behaviours of Czech consumers are analysed. Significant differences between the customers of diverse retail formats and alternative possibilities to acquire food are among the most important distinguishing factors characterising Czech shoppers today.

Open access

René Matlovič, Radoslav Klamár, Ján Kozoň, Monika Ivanová and Miloslav Michalko

Abstract

The paper focuses on the evaluation of some aspects of the spatial organization of economic development of regions in the V4 countries after their accession to the EU. It focuses on the confirmation or confutation of the application of two principles of spatial organization based on the context of polarization theories, namely the polarity between western and eastern regions (i.e. the West–East gradient) and the polarity between the capital and other regions of the country (i.e. the national metropolitan gradient) at national and supranational levels. In the evaluation of the spatial polarity, the remoteness of various regions of the V4 countries from the economic core area (the Blue Banana, respectively the capital of the country) acts as the independent variable, whereby two economic indicators, i.e. the average monthly wage and the unemployment rate were chosen as the dependent variables. The analysis showed that on the supranational scale of the research in the monitored period, the increase of spatial polarisation was recorded. The increasing role of the West–East gradient and declining role of the national metropolitan gradient in the dynamics of spatial polarity has also been confirmed. The analysis has not confirmed the scale shift of polarity according to the West–East gradient to the national level, but at the same time it has pointed out the significant influence of the national metropolitan gradient in Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary at this assessment level.

Open access

Ewa Zadęcka

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The goal of the article is to characterize the “slow city” model, its assumptions, conditions and effects of its implementation in Polish conditions. It also aims to present intelligent solutions in using own resources of small cities.

Materials and methods: The article was based on the study and synthesis of Polish and foreign literature and a review of strategic documents of Polish cities belonging to Cittaslow.

Results: The article fills the existing gap in the area of contemporary strategies for the development of small towns. It describes the “slow city” model, on the basis of which small cities belonging to the Cittaslow city network are developing. Intelligent solutions in the use of endogenous own resources of small cities are also presented.

Conclusions: The analysis carried out made it possible to state that the “slow city” model is useful in the development of small towns. It guarantees optimal and intelligent use of endogenous resources of a small town. However, the review of the strategic documents of the cities of “slow city” shows that these cities affect, like most small cities, negative socio-economic phenomena.

Open access

Józefa Krawczyk

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The aim of this research was to determine changes in the population of native animal breeds and to indicate the importance of subsidies under agri-environmental programs. The study concerned the years 1999-2017.

Materials and methods: The research was based on the documentation of the National Research Institute of Animal Production (PIB). An assessment of the population size of native animal breeds was carried out depending on the amount of subsidies from the national subsidy up to 2004 and from agri-environmental programs since 2005.

Results: Since the integration of Poland with the European Union and the mobilization of funds from agri-environmental programs, a successive increase in the number of farm animals covered by the protection program has been noted.

Conclusions: This investigation demonstrated a considerable, but not exclusive dependence of the dynamics of the growth of the livestock population covered by the protection program on the amount of subsidies for breeders. The preservation of EU subsidies through agri-environmental programs in the years to come is the basis for maintaining the upward trend in the abundance of native livestock populations. Also, a greater increase in the number of animals than in the number of new beneficiaries using agri-environmental programs was observed, and this is a situation conducive to breeding work. National surveys show that native breeds are a source of obtaining products with pro-health, regional and traditional properties, for which the demand is growing, and which can also help to protect the biodiversity of farm animals.

Open access

Konstantin Axenov, Dovilė Krupickaitė, Kira Morachevskaya and Andrey Zinovyev

Abstract

Since the beginning of the 1990s, Soviet urban residential communities have experienced rapid inflows of new urban functions. In this research project, two post-Soviet urban areas - Vilnius and St. Petersburg - are examined to indicate contrasting development paths over the last 30 years. The term “retail sprawl” describes correctly one of the important processes which have reshaped the former socialist microdistricts. We used data from the years 1987-1989, the last years of the socialist economy, and 2016 for 36 comparable research areas. By 2016 the structure of these formerly monofunctional areas made them functionally very similar to that of the urban core, including them in the intra-urban circulation of goods and capital, redirecting flows and making the city centre’s service burden much lighter. The results of the study provide a controversial contribution to the virtual discussion on universalism vs. uniqueness in post-socialist urban development. On the one hand, irrespective of contrasting “path-dependent” impacts, the structural results of retail development turned out to be generally identical in the studied cities at present, as well as in a prototypical North-American city 25 years ago. On the other hand, we found very pronounced differences compared to international patterns in morphological outcomes.

Open access

Sina Hardaker

Abstract

The international expansion of the German discounters Aldi and Lidl in recent years has been a large success in grocery retailing. In China, the world’s largest grocery retail market, however, grocery discounters have not (yet) established a physical store presence. In 2017 Aldi Süd and Lidl for the first time entered a new market without the help of a physical store, implementing an online shop in China. As to the format’s future, significant disagreement amongst retail experts exists. This paper, which is based on qualitative interviews with high-ranking senior executives of international retailers, argues for three major reasons as to why the discount format has not hitherto gained a foothold in the Chinese market. Firstly, due to the characteristics and challenges of China’s market, such as high fragmentation as well as the need for strong localisation, a high standardisation of the format is not possible. Secondly, the extremely low-margin operation of discounters faces a price level in China that is already very low, limiting one of the discounter’s major competitive advantages. Thirdly, the discount format is facing a lack of consumer acceptance, toughening the establishment of private brands, which represents one of the major characteristics of the discount format.

Open access

Pedro Porfírio Coutinho Guimarães

Abstract

Retail is a dynamic sector and for several decades shopping centres have been the most successful format. Although such shopping centres have been held responsible for the decline of other retail concepts, they are not without problems and some retail precincts are losing their viability, becoming dead malls. Some other shopping centres however are quite resilient. In this study we analyse the different retail resilience strategies used by older shopping centres to overcome their declining trend. For empirical evidence we adopt a case study methodology and fieldwork to investigate the evolution of all old shopping centres in Lisbon, confirming that a general trend of decline is affecting a large majority of those retail precincts. Refining our analysis, we interviewed managers from three shopping centres that remain viable. We conclude that a wide range of strategies can be implemented, all of which enhance the relevance of the shopping centre management structures.

Open access

Szymon Wiśniewski

Abstract

The article presents the results of research devoted to comparing accessibility in terms of theoretical and real travel times by car at inter-regional, intra-regional and intra-urban scales. The research strives to achieve three types of aim. The methodological aim is to assess the suitability of the data for research into transport geography, in particular with regard to accessibility. This objective also focuses on developing a method for acquiring and processing source data from suppliers. The cognitive goal is to analyse the spatial differentiation of theoretical and real travel times at different spatial scales. In terms of application, the focus is on the use of real travel time data for transport planning. Data on theoretical travel times includes the author’s own calculations based on analyses whose key assumption is that cars move on a road network at the maximum speeds allowed by the law with all other variables being excluded. The other source of data (on real travel times) is the Distance Matrix Response provided by Google Maps APIs. Due to methods such as isochrones and cumulative accessibility it was concluded that data obtained from Google servers is highly useful for research into transport geography, including time accessibility analyses. The patterns presented here however cannot be treated uncritically or used for unrestricted analysis. With regard to the cognitive goal, it should be emphasized that spatial variations in travel differences, resulting from theoretical and real variants for journeys between regional cities in Poland, between settlement units within one region, or within one of its large cities, are heterogeneous depending on the nature and length of the journey. Therefore, depending on the spatial extent of analysis, divergences in travel times should be expected.

Open access

Anna Nowak, Anna Kobiałka and Hanna Klikocka

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this paper is Measure 121 of the 2007-2013 RDP, called Modernisation of agricultural holdings. The objective of the study was to present the diversification of regional absorption of aid funds used under this measure and to assess the correlation between the scale of the use of these funds and the level of labor productivity in agriculture.

Materials and methods: On the basis of the GUS data, the regional differentiation of the absorption of aid funds from the analyzed measure and labor productivity in agriculture were assessed. The relation between these categories was determined based on Pearson’s linear correlation index.

Results and conclusions: A strong regional diversification of labor productivity in agriculture and the level of utilization of European Union funds directed at modernization of agricultural holdings was observed. There is a relation between the scale of the utilization of funds under Measure 121 of the RDP and the efficiency of labor factor. It can therefore be assumed that the form of support investigated is a significant stimulus for the increase in the level of work efficiency.

Open access

Aliaksandr V. Chernovalov, Marek Kuźmicki and Pavel A. Chernovalov

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The article compares cleaning services markets in Warsaw and Moscow. The productivity of work is the subject of the research, but not in the traditional neoclassical interpretation, but within the institutional economy. The aim of the article is to show new ways of analyzing work productivity using institutional methodology.

Materials and methods: The article uses a conventional method, which is a combination of institutional and neoclassical methodology. It covers sociological research tools and statistical methods of data processing used for quantitative analysis as part of the institutional approach.

Results: Similar parameters of human capital indicators were obtained in the employees of both markets. The indicators of opportunism in the representatives of the employees of the Moscow market are much higher, which significantly reduces the quantitative values of the institutional work productivity in Eastern markets.

Conclusions: In order to increase institutional work productivity in Eastern European markets (Russia) and to reduce opportunistic behavior of transaction participants, it is necessary to modernize institutional environment in these countries.