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Jan Krzysztof Solarz

Abstract

In the tradition of comparative capitalism, Japan represents a continental banking-oriented system. Holland represents an Anglo-Saxon market system. In Varieties Of Capitalism, Holland and Japan are identified as the same type of Liberal Market Economy (LME) or Coordinated Market Economy (CME). Only a dynamic view presented in this paper explains why Holland and Japan are now LMEs, as they used to be in the years 1868–1930. Holland and Japan used to be CMEs in the years 1910–1970s. The institutional equilibrium of open capitalism in Holland and close capitalism in Japan can explain periods of economic stagnation in the years 1603–2018.

Open access

Zoia Kaira and Jagienka Rześny-Cieplińska

Abstract

SMEs and entrepreneurship are key to ensuring economic growth, innovation, job creation, and social integration in the EU. The SME sector has a crucial role to play in creating new jobs, economic growth and innovation in socioeconomic development. The paper aims to address the critical role of small and medium-sized companies by investigating innovation management strategies in the SME sector. The goal of the present paper is to analyze the innovation strategies of SMEs and to provide an overview of the performance of Polish SMEs against those in the European Union. The main method in the study is desk research based on secondary statistic data. The method made it possible to prove that innovative strategy is a necessary condition to improve the competitiveness level in the SME sector. The main contribution of this research is to highlight the impact of innovation strategies on the competitive level of the researched entities for SMEs. The linear model developed for the “innovation expenditure” factor and forecast for 2-year period amply make it clear that SMEs continue to tread a positive growth trend.

Open access

Marcin Szplit and Andrzej Szplit

Abstract

The subject of the publication are contracts concluded by enterprises, regarding the implementation and operation of information systems, which support various functional areas. The implementation and operation of IT systems in enterprises is presented as a mechanism of permanent transactions entered in two contracts: the selection and purchase of an IT system, and the operation and service of the system.

Open access

Stefan Tokarski and Karolina Oleksa-Marewska

Abstract

As a result of socio-economic transformations and development of the Information Era, the competitive advantage of enterprises is based on intellectual capital. Competent employees as owners of knowledge, skills and creativity, essentially contribute to the strengthening of the position taken by their organisation on the market. In order to allow employees to use their capabilities in an effective way, it is crucial to provide them with favourable organisational conditions, which constitute organisational climate. The concept of organisational climate refers to employees’ perception of organisational conditions, which can be combined with the first level of economic analysis in the approach presented by New Institutional Economics, according to the model presented by O. Williamson (2000, p. 597). It is assumed that the employees’ positive assessment of the organisational climate is correlated with a higher level of the employees’ commitment, which leads to an increase in the competitive advantage of an organisation. In order to verify the hypothesis, some quantitative surveys have been carried out among knowledge workers (N = 639). In the research, two questionnaires have been used: the Organisational Climate Questionnaire (authors: L. Rosenstiel and R. Bögel) and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI developed by E. Demerouti), which examine the level of burnout and commitment to work. The results of the statistical analysis have shown a significant, strong relationship between the assessment of organisational climate dimensions and the level of employees’ commitment to work, which contributes to an increase in the competitive advantage of an enterprise.

Open access

Janusz Dworak

Abstract

The article is of interdisciplinary nature with its emphasis laid on sociology. Its aim is to present some considerations on the way in which emergent phenomena1 are created. The question whether the reasoning based on analogy fosters phenomena related to the emergence of new notions comes as the research problem that the author tries to solve. The research hypothesis is formulated as the following statement: applying analogy,2 considerations which refer to historical memory allow additional notions, such as collective, institutional and market memory, to emerge. In the article, the research method applied in order to achieve the assumed aim is the grounded theory3 because it allows us to generate knowledge in numerous fields. During the articulation of theoretical annotations,4 new emerging notions come as a good starting point for further studies on various types of memory, and consequently, they determine their usability in practice. In the article, the annotations are placed in the footnotes and they present the author’s thoughts and reflections presented by people who have been consulted with regard to the discussed problems. Presented in the theoretical part of the article, the reference to scientific achievements in the field of marketing memory is actually very difficult because they are extremely scarce.

Historical memory may be seen as knowledge resources recorded in some past stories, diaries and specialist publications; it also refers to artefacts collected in museums and to historical monuments that represent the culture of a particular society. Collective memory refers to historical awareness that is manifested by the cultivation of traditions and customs, reconstruction of buildings in which previous generations used to live. The concept of institutional memory is related to a specific vector that provides collective memory with magnitude and direction in the form of interpretation of events; it can be considered as a resultant of exogenous and endogenous processes taking place in a society. On the basis of those considerations, another type of memory appears: market memory as a new category of knowledge. The essence of market memory comes down reminding various communities about products the consumption of which is supposed to satisfy their needs at a specific level, but it will also lead to the replacement of currently operating devices with new and more advanced ones.

Open access

Grzegorz Górniewicz

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present budget deficit and government debt in the European Union member states, with particular consideration of the countries that belong to the PIIGS group. This paper has focused on the scale of these phenomena, on their reasons and on some attempts made to improve the unfavourable situation. In the main thesis presented in the article, it is stated that budget deficit and general government debt come as significant threats to economic security of the European Union (EU) countries. The research methods that have been applied in the study involve descriptive analysis and statistical data analysis.

Open access

Ashir In Tishar and Syed Hasanuzzaman

Abstract

Income tax non-compliance is worldwide delinquent and with the small volume of income tax collection Bangladesh has been facing its demerits for a long time. There is still a gap to measure income tax non-compliance behaviour in a micro direct approach. This study uses EVSCALE instrument to calculate the individual income tax non-compliance as a latent variable. The instrument consists of 15 items in Likert scale to measure the non-compliance behaviour of a person. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of income tax non-compliance and key factors of EVSCALE in Bangladesh. The study collected opinions of taxpayers by primary data collection following a convenient sampling method. Logit regression analysis finds out that log monthly income, tax morale, tax education and occupation significantly influence income tax non-compliance. Exploratory factor analysis identifies six key factors that have consistency and shared variance. However, Cronbach’s alpha shows that five key factors have high reliability among six factors. According to rules of thumb, this study suggests that EVSCALE instrument needs modification by adding more items. This study argues that increasing participation in taxation system is a feasible policy for government instead of increasing tax rate.

Open access

Akram Akoel and Ryszard K. Miler

Abstract

The European Union (EU) and International Maritime Organisation (IMO) strongly feel the need for initiating measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping lines regionally and globally using a package of tools called Green Shipping Practices (GSP). The GSP includes the use of global market-based mechanisms (MBMs), adoption of the energy efficiency design index (EEDI), establishing compulsory energy efficiency standards for all new ships, and the ship energy efficiency management plan (SEEMP) recommended as a new management tool for ship owners. Furthermore, the European Commission (EC) has proposed that owners of large ships using EU ports should report their verified emissions (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (MRV)) from 2018. In addition, IMO has introduced collection and reporting of ship fuel consumption data (SFCD) under the IMO SFCD scheme based on similar conditions, but related to global shipping. By providing a holistic analysis of the above-mentioned tools with a special focus on MRV and SFCD, this paper presents their economical and operational implications on the maritime transport processes. The working hypothesis that there is a correlation between the introduction of MRV and SFCD tools and reduction of maritime transport anthropopresure has been proved.

Open access

Jacek Jaworski and Katarzyna Sokołowska

Abstract

The aim of the article is to identify the main determinants of categories ascribed to scientific research units in the field of Economic Sciences in 2017. In the first part of the article, the legal and substantive basis for the evaluation of such institutions is presented. The second part of the text provides a verification of the evaluation assumptions included in the legal regulations (their advisability and significance). The verification is based on the statistical analysis of the obtained results. There are only two criteria out of four that determine the ascribed scientific categories: the first criterion refers to scientific achievements (publications) and the second one refers to scientific potential (scientific promotion and academic staff mobility). The other criteria - the third one (commercialisation of the research) and the fourth one (impact of the research exerted on economy and its internationalisation) did not affect the comprehensive evaluation in any significant way. The number of registered academic employees was not of any significance either.

Open access

Danuta Janczewska

Abstract

At present, under the conditions of some turbulent changes observed in our environment, micro-enterprises seek for opportunities to win their competitive positions in the market and in the sectors in which they operate The aim of the article is to present marketing and logistics management as one of the methods applied to achieve the market objectives of micro-enterprises. As an integrated method, marketing and logistics management may contribute to the improvement in competitiveness; hence, the recognition of conditions required for the application of this method may also contribute to the improvement in competitiveness. In the article, a review of literature related to the discussed problems is presented. The expert literature on the analysed subject does not provide any publications on micro-enterprise management, and scientific research in that sector is very scarce and provides only some general data. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse the processes taking place in the micro-enterprise sector in more detail, especially in the field of modern methods of management. In the article, some considerations on the specificity of integrated logistics and marketing processes are presented. Research methods: a review of expert literature and the Author’s own case-study research. The research was carried out in the years 2015-2018 among a group of micro-enterprises in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province, Łódzkie Province, Mazowieckie Province and Wielkopolskie Province. The aim of the research was to identify conditions required for marketing and logistics management in micro-enterprises and to define the impact exerted by the factors that determine the implementation of that process. Recognising knowledge as a fundamental determinant of the implementation of modern management methods in the aspect of micro-enterprise operation requires some in-depth analysis. The article presents the results of the research based on the case-study of integrated marketing and logistics management, on the example of a virtual micro-enterprise. The main conclusions: In a virtual micro-enterprise, it is possible to indicate the field of integration of marketing and logistics processes and to define their courses and conditions. Knowledge of logistics and marketing allows us to extend the field referring to the environment of the analysed company in virtual space.