The present work focuses on an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Belezma National Park (BNP), which is located in Batna city. It was conducted to precise on the medicinal plants in the park and gathers all the information on the therapeutic practice used by the local inhabitants of the study area. Using 300 questionnaire cards, ethnobotanical surveys of BNP were conducted during two campaigns (2017 and 2018). The obtained results allowed us to identify 50 medicinal plants used by the population of the region, which are divided into 27 families and 46genus.
The obtained results show both leaves and stems are mostly used for diseases’ treatment in the form of a decoction with a rate of 42.34%. For the treated diseases, the digestive disorders occupy the first place with a rate of 34.01%, followed by uro-genital diseases with a rate of 17.56%, 11.20% for respiratory diseases, 11.84% for orthopedic diseases and 6.23% for cardiovascular.
The founded results could be a database for research on phytochemistry and pharmacology for the national medicinal flora and the population of the BNP region. Also, they constitute a very valuable source of information.
Mohamed Djermane, Abdenabi Abidi, Amani Chrouda, Noureddine Gherraf, Messaoud Ramdani, Abdelali Merah and Abdelaziz Toubal
The objective of the present study was the optimization of the parameters affecting the hydrodistillation of Ruta chalepensis L. essential oil using response surface design type Box-Behnken. After an appropriate choice of three parameters, 15 experiments were performed leading to a mathematical second-degree model relating the response function (yield of essential oil) to parameters and allowing a good control of the extraction process. The realization of the experiments and data analysis was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). A deduced second-order polynomial expression was used to determine the optimal conditions necessary to obtain a better essential oil yield. These optimized operating conditions were: a granulometry of 2 mm, a condensation-water flow rate of 3.4 mL/min and an extraction time of 204 min. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates that the generated second-order polynomial model was highly significant with R2=0.9589 and P<0.006. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil extracted from the Ruta chalepensis L. aerial parts revealed the presence of 2-undecanone, 2-nonanone and 2-decanone as major components.
The crude sweet whey is an effluent and a co-product of cooked and pressed cheeses and casein, released into the environment without prior treatment (case of Cheese Dairy Sidi Saada, Yellel, Relizane, Algeria) affect the quality of freshwater ecosystems (Oued Mina, Relizane, Algeria).Our study focused on the control of the physical and chemical parameters of crude sweet whey and delactosed whey.The results showed that the applied bioprocess modified the physical and chemical parameters of crude sweet whey such as :density,dry matter,refractive index,viscosity,ash,pH and electrical conductivity, acidity,proteins and lactose; for this purpose these findings depended on the operating conditions, and the composition of the whey put in treatment.
The sedimentary sequences of the upper Miocene in the Strymon basin in Northern Greece are composed of sedimentary rocks and are separated on an entirely new lithostratigraphic shape. Fossil-fauna has been collected from specific parts of the described geological sections, which mainly include mollusks from Bivalvia and Gastropoda. From laboratory research on the micro-fauna and micro-flora a number of taxonomic units of Foraminifera were determined and representatives of Actinozoa, Bryozoa, Crinoidea, Ostracoda, Otolithus, Diatomeae and Charophyta were found, which give a more-complete biostratigraphical image of the sediments. Based on these investigations with the use of the biofacial analysis, through the study of palaeoecology data of the fossils, three basic types of palaeohabitat and development of organisms were identified and a new palaeogeographic interpretation of the depositional environments in the Miocene basin is given.
The present article reports on the first record of Glomeris hexasticha Brandt, 1833 in the area of Lilyaksko Plateau in North-eastern Bulgaria. The species has been found in three of the researched habitats in the region: LP1 – deciduous forest of common hornbeam (C. betulus); in LP2 – coniferous forest of black pine (P. nigra) and in the located nearby Meadow 1 (LP4), covered with wild wheat grass and single shrubs of common rosehip (R. canina). The research of the Myriapoda fauna of the Lilyak Plateau was conducted from May 2017 to April 2018 and G. hexasticha was established only in the period May – August 2017, and a total of 55 individuals (17 males, 17 female) were collected. The largest number of individuals (24) were registered in June 2017 (17 in LP1, 2 in LP2, and 5 in LP4).
Mohammed Nasir Assam Benziane, Kamel Acem, Hbib Aggad and Mustapha Abdali
Fenugreek is an herb that has the ability to resist multiple environmental insults, pests, diseases and many pathogens through the synthesis of substances allowing this plant protection, these substances are called phytochemical compounds or secondary metabolites. The aim of this study is to characterize these secondary metabolites in the extracts of fenugreek seeds grown in Algeria and compare the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts obtained by maceration and decoction. We carried out a “phytochemical screening” on both types of extracts in order to highlight the different classes of secondary metabolites and assaying total polyphenols by the method of Follin ciocaltchu, total alkaloids and tannins contained in these aqueous extracts and appreciate their antioxidant activity using the FRAP technique. A characterization of phytochemical molecules of the two types of Fenugreek extracts was done by chromatographic method with HPLC. Several phytochemical groups were identified in the extracts of fenugreek: tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes and reducing nitrogen compounds. Chromatographic analysis of the samples show that 4 phytochemical molecules were identified in the aqueous maceration extract: kaempferol, genistein, vanillin and myrecitine and 3 molecules for the aqueous extract of decoction are: rutin, kaempferol and vanillin. The aqueous extract of decoction was characterized by the total polyphenols content (31.7 ± 0.031 mg GAE / 100 g of extract), total alkaloids (2.12 ± 0.015%) and tannins (9.75 ± 0.06%) that are higher than those obtained in the aqueous extract of maceration: total polyphenols (18.9 ± 0.12 mg GAE / 100g of extract), total alkaloids (1.71 ± 0.02%) and 8.69 ± 0.02% for the tannins. A non-significant difference was marked for antioxidant activity found in both types of extracts (56.90 ± 0.013 mg AAE / 100g decoction extract against 56.37 ± 0.24 mg AAE / 100g maceration extract). In the end we conclude that fenugreek may be a promising plant genetic resource responsible for an important biological activity, except its nutritional and therapeutic properties due to their phytochemical compounds.
Ouroud Fellah, Samir Hameurlaine, Mohamed Djermane, Wafa Tahar, Muhammed Altun, Noureddine Gherraf, Amar Zellagui, Salah Akkal, Abdenabi Abidi, Ali Tahar, Ibrahim Demirtas, Ayse SahinYaglioglu and Gema Nieto
The aerial parts of Tamarix gallica L. taken from three different climatic stages in Algeria (Oum El Bouaghi: Semi-arid, ElTaref: Humid, and Ouargla: Arid) were extracted using boiling distilled water. The crude extracts were subjected to total phenolics and flavonoids quantifications in addition to anti-proliferative assessment against two tumor cell lines namely rat brain tumor (C6) and human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) using BrdU (bromo-deoxyuridine) ELISA(Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay) and xCELLigence assay. The total phenolics yield was found to range between 16.14 and 39.32 mg GAE (Gallic acid equivalent)/g of extract and a flavonoids yield ranging between 16.51 and 20.35 mg QE(quercetin equivalent)/g of extract. The various phenolics were identified using HPLC-TOF/MS to highlight hesperidin and rosmarinic Acid as major components. Moreover, the extracts exhibited different levels of antitumor potency against C6 and HeLa cell lines depending upon the climatic stage and the concentration. A good cytotoxic effect was recorded with the species collected from the humid region at 250 μg/mL. On the contrary, the other extracts revealed a weak activity for both tests.
Aakash Gupta, Agni Raj Koirala, Bikash Gupta and Niranjan Parajuli
Plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles through green chemistry approach has evolved into a new era of research; however, the heterogeneous size and dispersity of silver nanoparticles have limited its applications, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering, plasmon resonance, and more specifically in the medical field of target drug delivery and therapeutic activity. Here-we investigated the effect of purification and separation modes on the dispersity, size, and morphology of silver nanoparticles, synthesized by plant extract (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis). Transmission electron microscopy revealed silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 13.0 nm when synthesized through ethanol precipitation, which is advantageously smaller. This result suggests that the silver nanoparticles size can be fine-tuned by changing the separation mode during purification from plant extract. Due to uniformity, our obtained nanoparticles can be expected to show higher catalytic activity towards photochemical reactions, drug delivery and antibacterial activity due to the absence of inactive coating layer (capping agent).
In this treatise, we examined the activities of researchers of Nigeria descent in the frontier areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with a focus on green nanotechnology. The exploration of literature published by scholars were reviewed and compartmentalized on the basis of applications of the nanomaterials. It can be concluded that the level of activities in this area is expanding owing to the emergence of more published works since the beginning of 2010. However, in comparison with research outputs from other developing African countries such as South Africa and Egypt, activities in green nanotechnology are still at low ebb in Nigeria. Issues that are contributory to the slow pace were identified and appropriate solutions in terms of improved funding of education, enactment of national policy on nanotechnology, curriculum development, international cooperation as well as human resource development among others were discussed.