Yun Wang, Laura Freedman, Martin Buck, Jose Bohorquez, Seward B. Rutkove and John Keel
The objective of this study was to determine the potential value of electrical impedance myography (EIM) for assessing lumbosacral paraspinal muscle (LPM) condition in lower back pain (LBP) patients. Standard methods for assessing the condition of LPMs, such as magnetic resonance imaging, are inconvenient and expensive. One tool that could be useful for this purpose is electrical impedance myography (EIM) a technique that can be performed rapidly at the bedside. After undergoing a screening history and examination, subjects were studied with the mView EIM device (Myolex, Inc, Boston). Bilateral LPMs were measured three times each and the two closest sets of measurements averaged on each side. Data analysis included non-parametric two-group comparisons between healthy subjects and back pain patients, receiver-operating curve analyses, and correlation analyses to age and body mass index. A total of 86 healthy individuals (median age (interquartile range) (IQR), 45.5 years (30.3–56.0 years), 42 men, 44 women) and 47 LBP (median age 51.0 year (39.5–57.5) years, 21 men, 26 women) were enrolled. Median EIM 100kHz phase was lower in the LBP patients (9.3°(IQR 8.4°–10.6°) versus 11.4°(IQR 9.4°–13.0°), p = 0.0007). Significantly increased normalized side-to-side differences were present for all three EIM variables (e.g., median 100 kHz phase 0.15 (IQR 0.07–0.31 in LBP patients versus 0.09 (IQR 0.04–0.17) in healthy individuals). A significant correlation between 100 kHz EIM phase and reactance was found with age (Rspearman=−0.46, P=0.0002 and Rspearman=−0.440, P=0.0003) but not for resistance. This study provides early evidence supporting that EIM has the potential to serve as a useful tool for evaluating the condition of LPMs.
Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements on cells is a proven method to assess stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell regenerative medicine (CRM) is an emerging field where the need to develop and deploy stem cell assessment techniques is paramount as experimental treatments reach pre-clinical and clinical stages. However, EIS measurements on cells is a method requiring extensive post-processing and analysis. As a contribution to address this concern, we developed three machine learning models for three different stem cell lines able to classify the measured data as proliferation or differentiation laying the stone for future studies on using machine learning to profile EIS measurements on stem cells spectra.
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has a large potential as a two dimensional imaging technique and is gaining attention among researchers across various fields of engineering. Beamforming techniques stem from the array signal processing field and is used for spatial filtering of array data to evaluate the location of objects. In this work the circular electrodes are treated as an array of sensors and beamforming technique is used to localize the object(s) in an electrical field. The conductivity distributions within a test tank is obtained by an EIT system in terms of electrode voltages. These voltages are then interpolated using elliptic partial differential equations. Finally, a narrowband beamformer detects the peak in the output response signal to localize the test object(s). Test results show that the beamforming technique can be used as a secondary method that may provide complementary information about accurate position of the test object(s) using an eight electrode EIT system. This method could possibly open new avenues for spatial EIT data filtering techniques with an understanding that the inverse problem is more likely considered here as a source localization algorithm instead as an image reconstruction algorithm.
Oliver Pabst, Abbas Anwar, Adam Andrzej Nieweglowski, Christian Rolid Lindland, Habibur Rahman, Håvard Siljedal, Henning Thorkildsen, Ibrahim Camara, Kosar Nozari Mirarkolaei, Léa Massé, Magnus Solvi Hoen, Mohsin Noman Mustafa, Ole Johan Berg, Petter André Kristiansen, Ramzi Iguenad, Robin Alexander Torstensson Pedersen, Serwa Waisi and Trym Erik Nielsen
An electrical measurement is non-linear when it is affected by the applied stimulus, i.e. when the measured phenomenon changes with amplitude. If pinched hysteresis loops can be observed in the voltage current representation, the underlying tissue can be classified as a memristor. Several biological memristors have been published, like human skin and apples. However, changes in the polarization impedance of electrodes may also cause pinched hysteresis loops. The question whether the reported biological memristors are real or whether the results just reflect changes in the polarization impedance arises. If the impedance of the measured object is close to or smaller than the polarization impedance of the used electrodes, the latter may dominate the measurement.
In this study, we investigated the non-linear electrical properties of silver/silver chloride electrodes in a sodium chloride solution that has a similar concentration as human sweat and compared these to results from human skin. First of all, we found that silver/silver chloride electrodes in sodium chloride solution can be classified as memristors. However, the currents obtained from the sodium chloride solution are much higher than the currents recorded from human skin and there is a qualitative difference in the pinched hysteresis loops in both cases. We can conclude that the non-linear electrical measurements with silver/silver chloride on human skin are actually dominated by the skin and we can confirm that the human skin memristor really exists.
The article presents problem of non-uniform foundation of structures in weak wet subsoil. The problem is illustrated with the case study of two-chamber-reinforced concrete water tank constructed in 1920s of 20th century, which cracked during construction. Under part of foundation, where the peat was found, the concrete piles were introduced.
The results of five-year measurement of crack widths with crack gauges and geodesic measurements of vertical displacement of tank were presented. These results indicate that the tank is not stable and part of broken tank supported on piles is movable.
On the basis of the presented data, the general conclusions concerning the non-uniform founding of tanks are formulated.
Iman Faridmehr, Mohammad Reza YazdaniPour, Mohammad Javadi Jokar and Togay Ozbakkaloglu
Water seepage is one of the most important features of embankment dams. To prevent and reduce seepage, it is necessary to seal the dam. Plastic concrete cutoff walls are one of the most efficient methods in waterproofing the foundation of embankment dams on permeable alluvial substrates. Sufficient resistance to loads, low permeability to maintain dam sealing, high ductility compatible with the foundation and deformation under load without cracking are the main requirements in plastic concrete cutoff walls. In this paper, the construction and implementation of the cutoff wall of Karkheh Dam, which is one the world’s largest water sealing projects, was studied. In addition, a numerical model using Seep-3D software was developed to evaluate the efficiency of the cut-off wall to decrease the seepage over the dam’s foundation. The numerical results validated by instrumentation statistics resulted from 17-years dam operation. According to the results, after the drainage of the reservoir, the cutoff wall optimally reduced the hydraulic gradient by 0.08 from 2.35 and the water leakage by 3.1 m/s from 18.3 m/s.