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Open access

Sławomir Gawroński and Roland Jakubowski

Abstract

Ever since the Kotler’s promotion-mix concept based on the most traditional model of four pillars - advertising, public relations, sales promotion and direct sales has become commonly known, PR has been treated as one of many, typically marketing, impact tools. This perception is particularly characteristic for the science of marketing management and publication. Meanwhile, it is often forgotten that public relations is the management of communication, which may be used in marketing communication, however it is a much broader meaningful concept, giving greater perspectives of use. This article refers to defining a place of public relations between two asymmetric areas of communication - social and marketing one. Basing on literature analysis, the authors define key factors differentiating both perspectives, they also evaluate the proposals for introducing new concepts into the media and communication terminology, indicating the distinctiveness of both conceptual categories.

Open access

Tetiana Khomenko

Abstract

The author discusses important issues of the dialogical essence of thinking and internal dialogism in the moral and ethical journalism. Choosing everyone’ ability of monologic revelation as the starting point of her study, the author concludes that these revelations are a kind of reconsidering historical, personal and interpersonal shifts that lead to the desire to learn the truth, to harmonize the vision and understanding of a situation with someone else’s viewpoint. In search for the truth, both the publicist and the audience -together or separately - cross different levels of a dialogue as it is presented by the “communicative pyramid” as a model of dialogical communication and the formation of the personality.

Open access

Magdalena Hensoldt-Fyda

Abstract

The aim of this article is to examine differences between the transmissions of advertising content in the low and high context culture where the content contains subjects that are widely recognized as taboo. In order to do this, the analysis of audiovisual advertisements broadcast in the USA and India was used. These adverts introduce the problem of gender discrimination (particularly important in Hindu society) and different approach to gender stereotypes in both cultures (in American culture this subject is not suppressed). There are contrasting ways of presenting these difficult subjects in American and Hindu cultures. The things that are taboo in one culture become a stereotype in the other. And so, the question arises: do the cultural differences determining transmission of advertising content in the countries with cultural taboo of a product on sale still exist?

Open access

Anthony Potts, Nina Maadad and Marizon Yu

Abstract

This article contributes to the understanding of socialisation of children of Filipino immigrants in South Australia by examining their experiences and engagement with media, particularly television. Thirty children, aged 8–12 years, who participated in the study were mainly accessed through social networks. Children’s names, which reflect Anglicised or Spanish influence to Filipinos, were changed to maintain ethical considerations. A qualitative methodological framework grounded the children’s perspectives in symbolic interactionism. The study particularly focused on symbolic interaction concepts of the self (selves) and influence of others, forming perspectives, roles, attitudes of others and coping, as well as how socialisation experiences of children facilitated children’s perspectives on media. These concepts are significant in understanding how children made sense of television content. This discussion on children’s media socialisation is organised into two sections according to children’s engagement with television and parental control of television watching. The children in this article have been exposed to both television content in the Philippines and Australia. Whilst the article focuses on a small cohort of primary school children, the theory and methodology could be applied to children of other cultures and as such may generate comparative results.

Open access

Flavia Santoianni and Alessandro Ciasullo

Abstract

Adaptive learning environments design has been originally influenced by the adaptive learning environments model, which has been recently re-shaped by the bio-educational adaptive approach. Adaptive and bio-educational models share the common main idea that education should be adaptive. Since the 90’s the adoption of an adaptive educational point of view have been at the base of adaptive educational hypermedia systems, which design joins interest towards learners’ individual differences with adaptive learning environments research. Educational hypermedia systems have been overcome by the technology of 3D Virtual Learning Environments. Some emerging questions are related to the design criteria of adaptive learning environments. Which lessons learned from adaptive hypermedia systems design could be now applied to VLEs’ design? How a virtual learning environment should be designed to be adaptive? This research tries to answer to these questions by describing Federico 3DSU, an educational University 3D Virtual Learning Environment which has been designed with adaptive criteria, according to bio-educational model

Open access

Marcin Wielgosz

Abstract

The article is an attempt to confront Lev Manovich’s soft technological determinism with two contemporary media - the smartphone and the mobile application called Instagram. The analysis is based on the characteristics of a term called “new media” identified by Manovich, with emphasis on variation and cultural transcoding. The verification of accuracy and the use of the soft technological determinism in the context of selected new media has varied by the discourse on contemporary new media and constitutes an interesting point of view. The evolution and the development of both variation and cultural transcoding (two elements conditioning their universality which continually shows an upward trend) regarding mobile media, give an opportunity to forecast their productive potential.

Open access

Adrian Rudczuk

Abstract

External marketing communication of companies is a purposeful process of transferring information to the company’s environment - society, competitors, clients and receiving their feedback. Based on the signals, the company adapts its way of communication. Choosing the most suitable type of communication may be one of the factors deciding about a company’s success. Even the best offer would not be able to attract customer’s attention if the information did not reach one. The article combines secondary data - results of the research conducted in Polish companies regarding the use of communication tools, and primary data obtained from own surveys carried out on students regarding the perception of those tools. The purpose of the article is to evaluate the perception of different communication forms by young customers.

Open access

Anna Karwacka

Abstract

Online marketing is nothing else than a model of traditional marketing in cyberspace; it is a hybrid of previous forms of mass communication. In the first decade of the 21st century, the instruments used in marketing in political communication were revolutionized by the emergence of solutions enabling the interactions of users on the Internet. This type of marketing is characterized by a range of concepts, and includes online advertising campaigns, websites, interactive social networks, video-sharing sites, which encourage users to regularly post new material, websites that enable the publication of photos, images and other files or those that are based on content provided by users i.e. Wikipedia (including blog sites). Contemporary, internetized election campaigns combine low costs with effectiveness because location no longer limits social contacts in the exchange of election-related information.

Open access

Gabriela Piechnik

Abstract

The publication presents how the Internet and new trends in modern communication influence the Polish language. Digital forms of communication provoke people to use language shortcuts, borrowings and make users do not care about language correctness. The author attempts to outline the future development of the Polish language.

Open access

Ewa Kuźniar and Nataliia Filimoniuk

Abstract

The primary aim of this article is to analyze the Twitter communication strategy and its efficiency. The authors took into consideration four Ministers of foreign affairs from Great Britain, Poland, Ukraine, and Russia (their private accounts have also been examined). However, considering that Ministers of Poland and Russia did not have their own Twitter accounts (Witold Waszczykowski and Siergiej Lawrow), authors decided to analyze private accounts of Great Britain’s and Ukrainian’s Ministers (Boris Johnson and Pavlo Klimkin). All examined profiles are accredited. Because of the popularity of Twitter and the appearance of the new type of diplomacy, which involves social networking sites, the authors attempted to make a qualitative and quantitative analysis of given accounts. The results present the effectivity index and also show that spontaneously published messages on social media have a significant impact on how state institutions convey content. What is more, the qualitative and quantitative analysis and the effectivity index allows to present the tools needed for e-diplomacy on Twitter.