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Abstract

The Second World War ended with Japan’s capitulation after the disastrous nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Subsequently, approximately 700,000 Japanese soldiers were selected as captives to undertake physical labour in Soviet prison camps. After returning to Japan, some of them wrote about their lives in the Soviet Union, drew pictures about their experiences, or wrote about their favourite songs that they had sung during their imprisonment.

My study of various reports of Japanese prisoners of war (POWs) after the Second World War surprisingly revealed that not only traumatic conditions during forced labour were published, but also social interactions in the form of joint artistic activities such as making music, producing theatre plays, and staging sports competitions. The prisoners have often retrospectively described these as strikingly positive events during their years of internment in the Soviet Union. This article analyses a total of thirty-four songs sung and composed by Japanese POWs during captivity on a lyrical level (text analysis). In doing so, I adopt a new approach to interpreting the social conditions during the imprisonment of Japanese soldiers in the Soviet Union.

Abstract

Oka Masao (1898–1982) was a leading figure in the establishment of Japanese ethnology (cultural anthropology) since the 1930s and taught many of the next generation of ethnologists from Japan. He travelled to Vienna in 1929 to learn the methodology for studying the ethnogenesis of his own country, putting forward theories that questioned tennō-ideology of the time and became highly influential. During the war, he pushed for the establishment of an Ethnic Research Institute (Minken) to support the government in their ethnic policy in the occupied territories. Oka was also the founder of Japanese Studies at the University of Vienna in 1938. Despite these important—and at time controversial—roles, he is relatively unknown today. This article introduces recent scholarship on Oka’s life and legacy. It raises important questions about the role of ethnologists in politically sensitive times and counter-balances the Anglo-American narrative of the history of ethnology or social and cultural anthropology of Japan.

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Abstract

This essay proposed to analyze the profile of Adriana Bittel’s writing with deep meta and intertextual accents. In a transgressive and textual framework of the 80’s generation prose, the work presents a new way of approaching the narrative by intentionally disposing all its mechanisms of conception, in a context in which the fiction self-comments and brings the reader with all the tools and components of “textual engineering”.

Abstract

The article outlines the evolution of anthropomorphism, from the prehistoric phase in the contemporary one, along with related concepts such as animism and personification. A number of food brands now use this metaphorical language to influence consumers behavior. Anthropomorphic archetype becomes thus the stereotype of communication strategies and the environment in which messages propagate is governed by the paradigm of corporeality. The rhetoric of many advertising campaigns “sex exploits” successfully the cliché of carnal seduction, namely to arouse gastronomic appetite by the erotic appetite.

Abstract

The present conference discusses the symbolic meaning of bread in the religious mentality of the Ancient Near East. We will find that bread, besides being a food necessary for its existence, also represented a cultural archetype that summed up and assumed in itself either different divinities of Oriental civilizations, or had a ritual-sacrificial character, in order to facilitate man rather immortality.

Abstract

Vasile Băncilă is a thinker to be placed where he fits in the hierarchy of values of Romanian philosophers. Therefore, this text invokes some “start-up frames”, through which we offer a range of accents of the reception of the intellectual and philosophical dowry left by the author. Vasile Băncilă left posterity printed texts, but also thousands of sheets written over four decades of life, unfinished and not ready to be printed. Some of them are from his youth; on some of these focuses this text, namely on what meant for the young philosophy professor Vasile Băncilă the act or the process of philosophizing.

Abstract

For two days, together with friends across the country, Craiova celebrated Ion D. Sîrbu. Only those who deliberately ignore him do not understand the spiritual force of this creator who left a undenieble fingerprint upon the place where he lived his life. His books, but also his existence full of tribulations and restrictions have been subject of reflection in the events that took place in several places that have been close to the great writer and moralist.

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that Wassily Kandinsky’s geometrical paintings were inspired by the ballet world, and by the body movements of the ballerina. Moreover, painting and ballet communicate with each other. And geometry has helped that. Then, the idea of this article starts with the necessity in relating Kandinsky’s Spiritual theory on non-materiality exposed in Über das Geistige in der Kunst with Sergei Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes brought on Parisian scene between 1909s and 1929s. Ballets Russes is the term which names all the ballet representations thought and designed by Sergei Diaghilev after his musical-cultural conflict with Nikolai Rimski Korsakov. Starting with 1907s, Kandinsky had initiated Der Blaue Reiter group and he starts with various drawing techniques. Were favourable years in which Kandinsky’s evolution from simple drawings to sophisticated Compositions got up. We are witnessing a cultural increasement. So, the ballet, the music, the theatre and the painting can not be separated any more or, at least, or, at least, cannot be thought of separately as systems of aesthetic theory. The aesthetic evolution from ballet and theatre had influenced the evolution in painting. What we will try to show as novelty in our investigation, is the kinetic and spiritual relation between Kandinsky’s Compositions and some representations from Ballets Russes by Sergei Diaghilev, especially with the «L’Oiseau de feu». In conclusion, we want to show how the lines designed by Wassily Kandinsky are describing ballet’s movements. The methods used in our research have consisted in the inter-artistic comparison between Wassily Kandinsky’s theory of painting and the ballets designed by Sergei Diaghilev. We also brought a philosophical and personal perspective on both worlds.

Abstract

By „dispute” we mean an argumentative dialog where each of the two parts state opposite theses. Two sentences can be contrary if they have similar reference, but incompatible predicates (SIP – sentences with incompatible predicates). Usually, the disputes are solved using force in different ways, but that does not mean that the winner is right and his thesis is true. Therefore, we cannot evaluate a thesis on the ground of its success, but we need a reference mark for that. According to the Sophist school, the individual is the only reference mark, so any SIP is equally justified. The absolutist point of view claims that there is an objective reference mark and, consequently, the truth is, at its turn, objective and unique. Finally, the relativist orientation rejects any objective reference mark, but the right thesis is not arbitrary, as the sophists thought, it is true relatively to the state of the evaluator to a given moment. It follows that, for any evaluator, at a moment of time, only one SIP is true.