The purpose of this study is to form and test inseparable tight joints, commonly used in the construction of heat exchangers, by crimping operation on designed prototype stand. Crimped joints are made by tools in form of cones with two types of shapes, each of the designed tools have got identical forming angle. This study uses two types of connecting blocks and plates, differing in diameters of hole and flange. Elaboration contains a case study of joints being made by the stand, which in addition to the crimping operations for some cases were glued or brazed. The article presents the features of the formed joints, by examining them by destructive testing: Micrography, tensile strength test, and non-destructive testing: Leakage test. The examined elements have been made of aluminum 6060, which is well suited to indirect or direct operations of forming joints for all kinds of coolers or condensers. Elaborated tests and studies in this study allowed to state, that joining the connection block to plate with the small diameter, was more energy-consuming than in sample sets with bigger diameter, use of glue increasing the strength of the joints by 20%, significant strength increase can be obtained after mechanical clinching with brazing operation or modification of geometrical shape of the jaws
The present paper presents comparative results of the forecasting of a cutting tool wear with the application of different methods of diagnostic deduction based on the measurement of cutting force components. The research was carried out during the milling of the Duralcan F3S.10S aluminum-ceramic composite. Prediction of the toolwear was based on one variable, two variables regression Multilayer Perceptron(MLP)and Radial Basis Function(RBF)neural networks. Forecasting the condition of the cutting tool on the basis of cutting forces has yielded very satisfactory results.
In this paper, the problem of tool wear prediction during milling of hard-to-cut metal matrix composite Duralcan™ was presented. The conducted research involved the measurements of acceleration of vibrations during milling with constant cutting conditions, and evaluation of the flank wear. Subsequently, the analysis of vibrations in time and frequency domain, as well as the correlation of the obtained measures with the tool wear values were conducted. The validation of tool wear diagnosis in relation to selected diagnostic measures was carried out with the use of one variable and two variables regression models, as well as with the application of artificial neural networks (ANN). The comparative analysis of the obtained results enable.
This paper presents research on the accuracy and repeatability of CNC axis positioning in an innovative lathe with an additional Xs axis. This axis is used to perform movements synchronized with the angular position of the main drive, i.e. the spindle, and with the axial feed along the Z axis. This enables the one-pass turning of non-circular surfaces, rope and trapezoidal threads, as well as the surfaces of rotary tools such as a gear cutting hob, etc. The paper presents and discusses the interpretation of results and the calibration effects of positioning errors in the lathe’s numerical control system. Finally, it shows the geometric characteristics of the rope thread turned at various spindle speeds, including before and after-correction of the positioning error of the Xs axis.
Utilization of ecological materials for appliances and products is one of the ways to achieve the goal of sustainability.Wood-polymer composites as a cheap, lightweight, durable and esthetic material has gained attention of scientists, engineers and consumers alike. Different kinds of polymeric matrices, plants used as the fillers, chemical of physical modifiers and processing technologies have already been widely studied. Nonetheless, surprisingly few information on Wood-Polymer Composites’ tribology can be found. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap. Polypropylene-and poly(lactic acid)-based composites with varying wood flour content have been analyzed. The Brinell’s hardness and coefficient of friction of the samples have been determined. In order to evaluate the influence of the moisture content on the tribological and mechanical properties of the composites, the samples have also been aged in water. The investigation revealed that polymeric composites filled with wood flour can present favorable coefficient of friction, compared to the neat resins. The results of our study can establish a good starting point for further investigation.
The article presented here described the design of a test stand for hydraulic active heave compensation system. The simulation of sea waves is realized by the use of hydraulic cylinder. A hydraulic motor is used for sea waves compensation. The hydraulic cylinder and the hydraulic motor are controlled by electrohydraulic servo valves. For the measurements Authors used displacement sensor and incremental encoder. Control algorithm is implemented on the PLC. The performed tests included hydraulic actuator and hydraulic motor step responses.
Article presents the methods of detecting defects within material with the use of active infrared thermovision. During the study ABS and PVC samples were used inside which internal structure defects and defects of glue conjunction between components were modeled. During combining composite materials with the use of glue joints, there is a problem with homogenous distribution of the glue layer on the surface of an element, which results in the creation of defects in joint structure and the decline of active surface of adhesion forces on the combined materials. It is then necessary to control the quality of the conjunction between the glued surfaces. The use of non-contact diagnostic methods allows to analyze a larger surface which conditions in more efficient quality control process. In the study, external heat excitation was used - optical excitation with periodic variable signal (LockIn method) and unit step excitation (Pulse method). The methods of analysis of the obtained thermograms are presented.
The article describes a method of evaluating the reliability of groove turning for piston rings in combustion engines. Parameters representing the roughness of a machined surface, Ra and Rz, were selected for use in evaluation. At present, evaluation of surface roughness is performed manually by operators and recorded on measurement sheets. The authors studied a method for evaluation of the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz using multi-layered perceptron with error back-propagation (MLP) and Kohonen neural networks. Many neural network models were developed, and the best of them were chosen on the basis of the effectiveness of measurement evaluation. Experiments were carried out on real data from a production company, obtained from several machine tools. In this way it becomes possible to assess machines in terms of the reliability evaluation of turning.
This paper presents analysis of flank wear influence on forces in orthogonal turning of 42CrMo4 steel and evaluates capacity of finite element model to provide such force values. Data about magnitude of feed and cutting force were obtained from measurements with force tensiometer in experimental test as well as from finite element analysis of chip formation process in ABAQUS/Explicit software. For studies an insert with complex rake face was selected and flank wear was simulated by grinding operation on its flank face. The aim of grinding inset surface was to obtain even flat wear along cutting edge, which after the measurement could be modeled with CAD program and applied in FE analysis for selected range of wear width. By comparing both sets of force values as function of flank wear in given cutting conditions FEA model was validated and it was established that it can be applied to analyze other physical aspects of machining. Force analysis found that progression of wear causes increase in cutting force magnitude and steep boost to feed force magnitude. Analysis of Fc/Ff force ratio revealed that flank wear has significant impact on resultant force in orthogonal cutting and magnitude of this force components in cutting and feed direction. Surge in force values can result in transfer of substantial loads to machine-tool interface.
AA2014 aluminum alloy (Al-Cu alloy) has been widely utilized in fabrication of lightweight structures like aircraft structures, demanding high strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. The fusion welding of these alloys will lead to solidification problems such as hot cracking. Friction stir welding is a new solid state welding process, in which the material being welded does not melt and recast. Lot of research works have been carried out by many researchers to optimize process parameters and establish empirical relationships to predict tensile strength of friction stir welded butt joints of aluminum alloys. However, very few investigations have been carried out on friction stir welded lap joints of aluminum alloys. Hence, in this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize friction stir lap welding (FSLW) parameters to attain maximum tensile strength using statistical tools such as design of experiment (DoE), analysis of variance (ANOVA), response graph and contour plots. By this method, it is found that maximum tensile shear fracture load of 12.76 kN can be achieved if a joint is made using tool rotational speed of 900 rpm, welding speed of 110 mm/min, tool shoulder diameter of 12 mm and tool tilt angle of 1.5°.