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The V4 countries went through a transformation of their entire economies, including the agricultural sector, in the 1990s. Each of these countries approached the transformation of agriculture differently, but later the V4 countries’ approach to agricultural development was unified by the EU's common agricultural policy. The aim of the paper was to compare the development of the production (sown area and hectare yield) of selected most commonly cultivated crops in Slovak and Czech regions (NUTS 3) in the period between 2004 and 2017. The development of production in these two countries was also evaluated against the trends of V4 countries. Based on these analyses, common and specific agriculture development trends in V4 countries were revealed. A chronological average was used to evaluate the average values of the monitored indicators in the period from 2004 to 2017 in Slovak and Czech regions. To express the development of the given indicators between 2004 and 2017, the change index was used and visualised cartographically. Regression analysis was used to show the development trends of agricultural production in the V4 countries. In general, the agricultural sectors in the V4 countries show similar characteristics with similar trends, and the average hectare yield has a modest growing trend. In terms of the structure of the cultivated plants, the size of the cultivated areas, the volume of production and the average hectare yields, there have been considerable changes to crop farming in Slovak and Czech regions. The study showed that the changes in the agrarian sector after the year 2004 conditioned by the entry of Czechia and Slovakia into the European Union were reflected in a decrease in crop production and an increase in regional disparities. From the point of view of the production indicator expressing the hectare yield of crops, Czechia achieves better indicator values than does Slovakia.


The paper clarifies the conditions and factors of the development of the institutional environment through modern interdisciplinary analysis. The authors revise the studies of the problem under consideration in the history of science and reveal the decisive role of religion in the development of national business cultures. The study highlights the fundamental postulates, i.e. the canons of theology, and argues for the need to consider them in the context of the analysis of national business cultures. The authors put forward and prove theoretical and methodological principles of the determinant influence of national business cultures and religion on the development of countries (the socio-economic phenomenon of the “economic miracle”). The content of the category “Polish economic miracle” is revealed through analysis of the influence of Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism on other “economic miracles” known from history. The authors conclude that Catholicism currently encourages entrepreneurial initiative of both individuals and organisations, which contributes to the sustainable economic development of countries.


This study examined the contribution of wildlife tourism and conservation to employment generation and sustainable livelihoods of a community residing adjacent to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Southern Africa. Adopting a qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with tourism stakeholders and focus group discussions with members of the community. The findings reveal wildlife tourism to have positively contributed towards providing diverse employment opportunities for the community. Additionally, the livelihood diversification strategies largely involved integrating the cultural and natural resources with the wilderness experience of the region. However, a major concern is the significant lack of linkages between wildlife tourism and the local economy of the community. While the study concludes wildlife tourism to be an important economic sector for the community, it recommends further integration of micro and small local businesses into wildlife tourism so as to enhance the contribution of the Park and wildlife tourism to community livelihoods.


Caravan parks are a largely overlooked theme in tourism scholarship. In South Africa, as in several other countries, local governments assumed an historical role in the establishment of caravan parks. Municipal caravan parks are assets which could be leveraged for tourism growth and local development. The planning and management of caravan parks in South Africa can be understood as an element of asset management by local governments. It is shown that across most of South Africa municipal ownership of caravan parks is of declining significance as compared to the dominance of privately owned parks. The coastal province of the Western Cape is the biggest focus for caravanning and for the location of all caravan parks, including for the largest cluster of municipal owned caravan parks in South Africa. Research interviews were conducted with local stakeholders concerning contemporary planning and management of caravan parks. The results reveal that most local municipalities currently are struggling to manage appropriately and optimally maximise for local development the operations of municipal caravan parks. Many municipalities are considering different options for privatisation through selling off or leasing parks to private sector investors.


Subject and purpose of work: The study aims to assess the sustainability of rural areas of Western Himalayas during the year 2019.

Materials and methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in upper Beas Valley of Himachal Pradesh. A total of 101 individuals were interviewed and the questionnaire was filled by the surveyor.

Results: Survey showed that high level of unemployment prevailed in the region with minimal monthly income. However, they engaged in agriculture and allied activities along with collection of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to supplement their incomes. The proximity to protected areas led to frequent encounter with wildlife and such encounters increased after the commencement of Hydro Power Projects. Respondents believed that construction HPPs and expansion road network in the region has increased the occurrence of landslides; and many of them had lost their cultivated land due to landslides.

Conclusions: The study showed rural areas of upper Beas Valley were moderately unsustainable.


Subject and purpose of work: Investigation and statistical analysis of tourism flows and of trends observed in Ukrainian-Polish cross-border tourism. The purpose of the study is aiding further cross-border tourism-related cooperation between Ukraine and Poland.

Materials and methods: Government and commercial statistics sources. Data analysis methods included literary, analytical, comparative, and quantitative methods.

Results: The processes and dynamics of cross-border cooperation between Ukraine and Poland in the field of tourism during 12 years (from 2006 to 2017) have been investigated. The authors analysed data related to tourism flows and determined the primary source-countries of visitors based on the inbound and outbound indicators and the current tourism market trends within this cross-border cooperation.

Conclusions: The main trend in the Ukraine-Poland tourism flow over the last decade is the stabilisation ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL STUDIES STUDIA EKONOMICZNE I REGIONALNE ISSN 2083-3725 to Poland. In the last few years, it has been driven by Ukraine’s focus on Euro-integration.


Subject and purpose of work: The contemporary labour market in Poland is characterised by a large scale of migration of people, caused by the desire to find a good job. This situation is facilitated by the possibility of free movement within the European Union. The purpose of this study is to present the concept of migration, its types, causes and effects. Statistics related to the labour migration of Poles are also presented. The subject of the study is the migration activity of Poles abroad. The obtained data are presented using the descriptive method and graphical methods.

Materials and methods: National literature and statistical data were used during the work on the research problem.

Results: Statistics showing the scale of the migration phenomenon in Poland are presented. The research period covered the years 2013-2018.

Conclusions: Over the period under consideration, the number of Poles travelling abroad for work purposes decreased. This may be due to the decreasing number of unemployed people and the lower unemployment rate in Poland. At the same time, an increasing number of job offers in the national labour market can be observed.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the article is to present selected aspects of the digitization process of the banking sector in Poland, including the role of the digital channel in the sale of banking products.

Materials and methods: The research is of comparative character and is based on data from the financial website, NBP, KNF and the ECB Bank.

Results: Mobile banking in Poland is highly concentrated. In 2016-2019, the five largest banks serviced 82% of all mobile banking customers, and their number increased by 27% annually.

Conclusions: Digitization simplifies the process of obtaining and processing information and contributes to reducing operating costs. However it also forces banks to prepare appropriate security and implement costly technological investments. It increases the availability and quality of banking services, and moves customer service from banking branches to the digital channel. Additionally it contributes to reducing the network of branches and the number of employees employed in them.