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Abstract

This research aims to prove the effectiveness of Spanish as a Second Language lessons for Haitians designed by volunteers in Santiago de Chile. The methodology used through the study was based on the application of two questionnaires to Haitian students in order to compare results, and finally obtain an average that reflects the achievement of the communicative functions expected. Results indicate that neither the lessons planned, material giver nor the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages fulfilled such expectations. Findings are discussed in relation to previous studies on methodologies for Spanish as a Second Language for Haitian immigrants in Chile ()

Abstract

By overview of scientific, political, and economic arguments, the structure and profile of glyphosate, the most important agrochemical compound in the world, has been portrayed. Toxicological, ecological and market objections of the opponents of glyphosate are in opposition with the financial and political support to that herbicide which, according to its advocates, enables the protection of crops, higher yields, and postpones the problem of world hunger. The conflict surrounding glyphosate surpasses the narrow scientific and social frames and is a good example of the need to think through and of decision making which involves connection and the totality of reality.

Abstract

The paper provides an overview of the forms in which translation is used in foreign language education. A tentative classification is suggested which differentiates between facilitative translation as a supporting process that helps to overcome learning constraints, deliberate translation as an independent task with a predetermined objective that targets learners’ foreign language competence and skills, and simulated translation as an activity from which additional pedagogical benefits regarding learners’ foreign language proficiency can be derived. From the side of the learner, facilitative translation constitutes a complex learning strategy that can be applied for a variety of strategic purposes (memory-related, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective, and social), while from the side of the teacher it represents a scaffolding tool that can be consolidated into a fully-fledged teaching technique. Deliberate translation can further be differentiated according to the specifics of pedagogical focus. Language-focused translation, targeting learners’ grammatical accuracy or vocabulary range and control, and skill-focused translation, targeting one of the four basic communicative language skills, can be used for both instruction-related and diagnostic purposes. The focus on the holistic use of the available linguistic repertoire results in the two complex uses of translation as an incentive for communication and as a communicative activity aimed at developing the skill of cross-language mediation. A particular type of simulated translation which appears to be particularly suited for the purposes of foreign language education is audiovisual translation.

Abstract

In recent decades, Slovenian sociolinguistic situation and within the functions of different language varieties have dramatically changed. In spite of this process, the standard language remains a language variety that enables an individual to participate equally in educational and public life. As the Slovenian schools are not successful enough in developing of the discursive flexibility and mastering of the standard language, in the article, the functions of Standard language in modern Slovenian-speaking society is described; the specific groups of primary Slovenian language speakers are defined, and some solutions for improving the first language learning are suggested.

In 1990’s, in opposite to the prevailing traditional structural language-stratification theory, the new classification of the primary sociolects, based on the English functional linguistics, by A. E. Skubic was represented. According to his theory, the sociolects are defined as non-hierarchically ordered cultivated or marginal language varieties that are used and identified with by different social groups. Based on Skubic’s classification, two main groups of primary-Slovenian language speakers can be described. The speakers of the cultivated primary sociolects are mostly self-confident users of language, identifying themselves with the main culture. In opposite, the speakers of the marginal sociolects could be de-privileged due to their linguistic deficit in standard language and micro-cultural discursive patterns, used in educational or public contexts.

As it is suggested, to improve students’ linguistic competence and diminish deficits, the discursive flexibility should be understood as a complex awareness, consisting of cognitive, emotional-evaluative and active dimensions. Therefore, the basic principle of first language teaching should become the extended holistic principle, emphasizing the inclusion of standard and different non-standard language varieties, observation of their different functions in specific communicative situations and reflection about the complex context, that can be implemented to first language teaching in all basic phases of learning.

Abstract

Self-selecting of the material has been the arena of discussion by the researchers of L2 pedagogy. While some believe that it can be effective, others believe that it is detrimental to L2 learning. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-selected and teacher assigned writing prompts on the writing complexity, accuracy, and fluency of Iranian EFL learners at beginning, intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels. The theoretical aspects of the current research were founded based on Theory of Reasoned Action () and Choice Theory (). Given that, 52 Iranian EFL learners (beginning N = 19, intermediate N = 16, advanced N = 17) participated in this study. Each student was asked to write about two writing prompts: one selected by the students and the other by the teacher. Using relevant indexes, we measured writing complexity, accuracy and fluency with regard to the two writing prompts. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the writing complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 learners when they wrote about their own self-selected prompts and when they wrote about the teacher assigned ones. The results also revealed that L2 learners’ writings were more complex, accurate, and fluent when they wrote about their self-selected prompts. The findings of this study can have some implications for L2 writing instructors and test designers.

Abstract

An integral part of the Slovak cultural context is also Lowland Slovak literature, which includes certain areas of Hungary, Romania and Serbia. The paper outlines the partial development of Slovak youth literature in these regions. It gradually characterizes the most important aspects of diachrony of this segment of writing (in a certain chronotope that is bound to selected prototexts). Based on objective-subjective interpretations of three emblematic works of this context, it highlights - as a certain typology - not only the general / universal, but also the specific / particular (that is particularly relevant to the context) in intra- and intercultural relations. It accentuates the literary tradition, which is still a useful source of realistic short stories and novels for child percipients in these diasporas. It also traditionally and innovatively points out the typical features of teaching in individual national-minority schools in the mentioned countries. Methodologically (but also practically) it is, of course, based, on thematic, motif related, etc. aspects of the analyzed (selected) works and their possible reflection in school education and learning environment. Finally, the use of language / features / motifs / aspects / procedures is concretized in specific conditions outside the physical boundaries of the homeland as a kind of perspective on the correlation of the difficult process of cultural education itself.

Abstract

Environmental education is gaining more and more significance, not only because of the wasting of natural sources but also because of the polluting of the environment. The aim of environmental education is not only the knowledge or a line of facts which a child should learn about the environment, but also building proper attitudes and a positive relation towards the environment. It’s important to practice literature to develop an ecological conscience. It’s possible to accomplish a connection of literature and education on three levels: on the basic, on some higher and on the highest one. On the basic level, picture books and illustrated books for children process ecological themes more from the cognitive and less (or almost not at all) from the poetical point of view appeared. Exactly because of that, they are called a cognition type of picture books or illustrated books for children. The aim of this paper is to describe picture books with ecological themes and also to analyse functions of each picture book taken in the account. Six books were selected: Sunčica upoznaje činčilu (eng. Sunčica meets chinchilla), Brdo na kraju grada (eng. Hill at the end of town), Priroda priča... (eng. Nature talks), Nauči poštivati prirodu uz kravicu Šaricu (eng. Learn to respect nature with Šarica the cow), Zatvori vodu! (eng. Shut the water off!) and Zraka trebam, hitno! (eng. I need air, now!).

Abstract

Bioethics is a very important and complex contemporary field of thinking and activity. Knocking strong on our doors, various problems of health, environmental pollution, violence, conflicts, human indolence, criminal deeds, as well as bad behaviors of all different kinds, come to the core of humankind. All these problems require a serious and rapid human action. That is why it is very important to introduce bioethical education to all people. This paper is dealing with the issue of implementing ethical and bioethical education in the North Macedonian school system. It offers a brief review of the activities in this field so far, and it attempts to contextualize some theoretical approaches for ethical and bioethical education. The main thesis is that at the basic level ethical and bioethical education should be organized as moral education, but at the level of secondary school and faculty teaching the approach should be through critical thinking as the most appropriate for that age.