As milk prices move away from production costs, dairy farms are under increased pressure to find ways to protect profitability on the farm. Producers have some problems that they can improve. Improve the milk production, produce more milk to sell focused on quality (reduce the amount of high level of somatic cell count). The deterioration of animal health status (lameness, mastitis and different metabolic disorders) can have a serious impact on cow productivity, causing pain and discomfort, production losses and might result in a decision to cull the animal. Improving herd reproductive performance is an important aspect of profitable farm management. The aim of this work is to analyse milk production, reasons of culling and culling rate in different lactation on a dairy cattle farm.
The aim of the present study was to detect the antibacterial activity of medicinal plants against fish microflora. A total of 4 ethanolic extracts of 6 plant species were collected from local environments of Slovakia and screened for antibacterial activity against bacterial microflora. Extracts of Melissa officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Origanum vulgare L. and Malva mauritiana were used. Bacterial strains were isolated from common bleak (Alburnus alburnus) and common rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) of Latvian origin. All bacterial strains were identified with the Matrix- Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Among fish microflora, Acinetobacter pittii, A. baumannii, Buttiauxella agrestis, Delftia acidovorans, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Ps. oryzihabitans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, St. caprae, Pantoea agglomerans, Lelliottia amnigena, Providencia rettgeri, Escherichia coli and Rahnella aquatilis were identified. It has been shown that all plant extracts exhibit different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria. All bacterial strains in the present study were moderate sensitive to all extracts applied. The strongest antimicrobial effect of Malva mauritiana and Melissa officinalis L. against Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (6.67±1.53 resp. 9.67±0.58 mm) were found. The best antimicrobial activity of Mentha piperita L. was against Staphylococcus epidermis (7.33±0.58 mm) and strongest antimicrobial effect of Origanum vulgare L. was same against two bacterial strains Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia liquefaciens (9.67±0.58 mm).
The purpose of the present study was to analyse the changes in concentrations of total proteins, albumin, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation. The study was performed on 9 mongrel dogs (experimental group) and 6 mongrel dogs (control group) at the age of 2 years and body weight 12-15 kg. The acute inflammation was reproduced by inoculation of 2 ml turpentine oil in the lumbar region subcutaneously and in same quantity saline in control dogs. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before inoculation (hour 0) then at hours 6, 24, 48, 72 and on days 7, 14, 21. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The level of albumin statistically decreased in the experimental dogs from at 72nd h to day 14 while the concentration of globulins increased from the 72nd h to day 21. On days 7 and 14 the albumin/globulin ratio slightly decreased. During the whole post inoculation period the values of total protein have not changed. The dates of the present study confirm that albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and globulins are sensitive factors in inflammatory conditions in dogs.
Measurement of growth performances in fish is carried out in stressful and unnatural environment. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effect of four different water-borne anesthetic agents. The fish (Ave. wt. 400.3±7.12 g) were divided into four groups in the glass tanks (80×48×30 cm) containing 80 L of dechlorinated bore water. For the first group we used clove oil (CO) and anesthetic agents used for other three groups were as follows: second group- lidocaine 1% (LC), III groupisoflourane (IF), IV group-halothane (HT). During experiment, water quality parameters (to, pH, О2, and NO3) were recorded. The desired concentration of anesthetics was established andinduction time, maintenance and recovery time were recorded. In two groups out of four (LC and HT) time of induction was longer approximately with 1 minute and time of recovery was shorter with 30 seconds in comparison with other two groups (CO and IF) where the time for both was 3 minutes. It could be concluded that the anesthetic time for each of the protocols used was about 4-5 minutes and allowed to measure the growth performance. An effective and safe agent is 1% lidocaine used as a water-based anesthetic at 100 mg.L-1. Isoflurane can be used with caution in small carp because there is a risk of overdose. We recommend the anesthetic clove oil protocol.
This study was aimed to determine the deficiency or excessivity of nutrients for sugar beet crop in Konya plain. The results showed that the pH value was found as 7.65 and soils were classified as sodic; the organic matter was 1.59% and 92.9% of the soil samples was poor in terms of the organic matter. The mean lime content (CaCO3) was determined capacity was 26.07 and 97.1% of the soil samples was limy and the mean cation Exchange capacity was 26.07 me/100g, and it was varied between 10.72 me/100g and 44.7 me/100g. The mean available NH4+NO3 nitrogen content, phosphorus and potassium for crop were as 0.059%, 10.21 ppm and 1.39 me/100g, respectively. According to the these results, NH4+NO3 nitrogen and potassium amounts were sufficient while the phosphourus content was sufficient in 65.8% and insufficient in 34.2%. Cu and Mn content in soil samples were adequate. The sufficient amounts of Zn, B and Fe were 85.7%, 45.8% and 95.7% and their insufficient amounts were 14.53%, 54.2% and 4.3%, respectively. According to the result of leaf analyses, the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium were sufficient. The deficiencies of iron, zinc and bor were found in 4.3%, 14.3% and 38.6% of the total samples, respectively.
Quality of poultry products, especially eggs, is a very important issue for the consumers and for the processing industry. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction between the storage time and age of laying hens and their effect on the quality of table eggs. Eggs from 34 and 59- wk-old Bovans Brown hens were sampled and stored in the refrigerator for 1, 2, and 3 weeks. Significant effect of hen age (P<0.01) was found on egg weight, shell strength, albumen height and Haugh units (HU). Eggs from older hens had 2.58% higher mass compared to the eggs of young hens. Eggs from 59-weeks old hens had significantly lower shell strength (3.63 kg vs. 4.31 kg). Albumen height and HU were lower in eggs from the older hens compared to the young ones (5.7 mm vs. 7.11 mm for albumen height; 70.35 vs. 81.77 for HU). Significant negative effect of storage time was found on egg weight, albumen height, HU and yolk colour (P<0.01). The results indicated that egg quality characteristics monitored in this study decrease by hen age and during storage. The interaction effects between storage time and age of hens were significant only for yolk colour (P<0.05).
In recent years rural areas of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship have seen very significant changes, especially with the participation of the Rural Development Program 2007-2013. The aim of the article was to diagnose the factors determining the implementation and management of the Leader 2007-2013 program in the institutional and personnel aspect in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship, and to diagnose the functioning of the Local Action Groups as the actors responsible for shaping the regional and local sustainable rural development policy, RDP 2007-2013 program. As a result of the research, there is a need to continue research leading to an assessment of the effectiveness of LAG activities and the creation of local leaders, which may have a significant impact on local community participation in moderating local development.
Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glucoside derived from various plants seeds. It is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, it has also been used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, leprosy and diabetes and produces antitussive and antiasthmatic effects. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin in apricot seeds has got an effect on human urine composition, pH value and urine associated health status after twelve weeks of oral administration. The study group finally consisted of 12 healthy adult volunteers. All participants consumed 60 mg/kg of body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily (approximately 3.0 mg/kg of amygdalin) during 12 weeks. Two urine collections were carried out (at the beginning of the experiment and after 84 days). Quantification of urine calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorides, urea and pH value after apricot seeds supplementation was performed. Paired t-test showed, that consumption of bitter apricot seeds during 84 days had a significant (P < 0.01) effect on amount of calcium excreted in urine, though this decrease shifted its level from elevated mean value in control collection into normal physiological range. No significant changes were observed in other parameters after apricot seed ingestion.
The aim of our study was to assess the impact of mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) addition on improvement of antioxidant characteristics of dark chocolate. For evaluation of total polyphenolic content we used Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, for total content of flavonoids spectrophotometric assay based on a formation of coloured flavonoid-aluminium complex was used and for the content of total phenolic acids was used method using Arnow’s reagent. Three different methods were also used for measuring the antioxidant activity of samples: DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power method and phosphomolybdate method. Obtained results showed, that compared to plain dark chocolate used as control, chocolate enriched with mulberry exhibited higher polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, enrichment with sea buckthorn didn’t show such significant improvement in antioxidant characteristics, but increased the levels of bioactive compounds despite the lower content of cocoa solids.
The experiment was designed to study the effect of foliar fertilisation on the yield and some generative factors of maize in 2016. It was set on the territory of SZTE Tangazdaság Ltd in Hódmezővásárhely meadow chernozem soil. Three different foliar fertilizer products were applied in three replication randomised small plot experiment. The products were sprayed out individually and combined with each other as well, so there were six treatments and the control. In 2016 the amount of precipitation in the vegetation period of maize was higher than the average by 23.7 mm. Therefore this year was favourable for maize production. The data obtained during the experiment were processed by single factor variant analysis. Owing to the favourable dispersion of rainfall in the vegetative period of maize, the yields were relatively high. The average yield harvested from the control plots was 11.37 t/ha, and that of the treated parcels ranged from 11.61 and 12.86 t/ha. The foliar fertilizer products and their combinations increased the yield of maize, but this growing was not significant. By the using of foliar fertilization the generative factors of maize did not change significantly.