The article examines the issues surrounding tourist activity and social interest in agritourism among residents of the main cities in Kazakhstan. Based on the survey results among a group of n = 577 respondents, the article inspected the extent of their participation in rural tourism, including agritourism, as well as their preferences and expectations regarding the type and extent of services offered on tourist farms. Research results show that the interest of city residents in using agritourism farm services is limited despite of a generally positive attitude towards rural tourism. Potential tourists’ expectations of agritourism farm services focus primarily on the quality of accommodations and the sanitary conditions present in the facilities providing them. Domestic tourists especially expect to be able to take advantage of natural products with medicinal and cosmetic properties. They view active forms of leisure as a mere supplement. The respondents’ opinions and assessments can determine the ways agritourism farms adapt to this clientele as well as impact organisational decisions and strategic planning of rural tourism in the country.
It is not only growth and development that is of value to local, regional and central governments, but also the ability to absorb negative phenomena and the ability to continuously transform socio-economic systems. Resilience strategies thus serve as a response to the more and more frequent and intense natural, social and economic challenges. In some approaches to urban resilience, special attention is paid to activities undertaken by cities to become inclusive, integrated, robust, resourceful, reflective, redundant and flexible. In regional strategies the emphasis is on diversity, dispersion, mutuality and modularity. The aim of the paper is to synthesise selected qualities of resilient cities and regions into a new model of resilience strategy. It assumes that goals at each level of strategy are formulated according to adaptive interpretation of the resilience concept. Development of such model would enable the use of the concept by practitioners responsible for creating development strategies.
The practical problems of implementing the Regulation on Landscape Audits (European Landscape Convention, ELC) in Poland are discussed through the topic of landscape relief, on an example of landscape classification of three of Poland’s landscape parks. In the existing landscape typologies, various criteria are proposed, in which relief is usually considered to be one of the leading components. The study was carried out for the purposes of the Landscape Parks Conservation Plans, based on a comparison of the method under the Principles of Landscape Audits and the authors’ method. The results indicate that the landscape types set out in the regulation insuficiently take relief into account, leading to omitting the local specific nature of the terrain. The essential attributes of the terrain in the analysed parks are the morphometry of relief and its genesis. Relief helps to determine the landscape types that are more related to the terrain.
The presented work deals with the spread of viticulture and fruit farming in the Middle Ages in the Samtskhe-Javakheti region in Georgia. The current state of the farming sectors mentioned and those pivotal moments in Georgian history that had an influence on agriculture are also considered in the article. The changes that determined the viticulture geography from the second part of the 16th century up to the present day are also discussed. The study is mainly based on the census document created in 1574. The article represents the geographic distribution patterns of vineyards and orchards, as well as wine production capacity and the fruit harvest. Retrospective mapping made it possible to restore the distribution of farms and gardens of the mentioned period and to analyse the importance of viticulture and fruit farming in the 16th century. The maps represented show spatial patterns of vineyards, gardens, and main terroirs.
The aim of this paper is to discuss changes in the spatial distribution of cities that perform the command and control function created by the largest corporations, based on the method of gravity centres. The analysis was performed both for individual sectors of the economy as well as for the global scale. A shift occurred in an easterly direction. This also pertains to sector indices, although the centroids of knowledge-based sectors, such as information technology and healthcare, shifted the most in the direction of Asia. At the same time, information technology was the only sector whose centroid shifted to the west in the study period. Moreover, the magnitude of the shift of the centre of gravity of the number of corporate headquarters in the studied cities does not converge to the shift of the centroid based on the value of the financial potential of the companies.
The paper describes the problem of conversion of heights to the European Vertical Reference Frame 2007 for Poland (PL-EVRF2007-NH). The subject of the study is height data, and especially the detailed vertical reference network. The aim of the article is to present an alternative method of conversion to the one recommended by the Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. The proposed approach is characterised by a low implementation cost while maintaining the required accuracy.
The publication is illustrated by the case of Kętrzyn district (in the north-east part of Poland). The local reference network was converted from Kronstad’60 to PL-EVRF2007-NH in 2017.
The article presents problem of non-uniform foundation of structures in weak wet subsoil. The problem is illustrated with the case study of two-chamber-reinforced concrete water tank constructed in 1920s of 20th century, which cracked during construction. Under part of foundation, where the peat was found, the concrete piles were introduced.
The results of five-year measurement of crack widths with crack gauges and geodesic measurements of vertical displacement of tank were presented. These results indicate that the tank is not stable and part of broken tank supported on piles is movable.
On the basis of the presented data, the general conclusions concerning the non-uniform founding of tanks are formulated.
Water seepage is one of the most important features of embankment dams. To prevent and reduce seepage, it is necessary to seal the dam. Plastic concrete cutoff walls are one of the most efficient methods in waterproofing the foundation of embankment dams on permeable alluvial substrates. Sufficient resistance to loads, low permeability to maintain dam sealing, high ductility compatible with the foundation and deformation under load without cracking are the main requirements in plastic concrete cutoff walls. In this paper, the construction and implementation of the cutoff wall of Karkheh Dam, which is one the world’s largest water sealing projects, was studied. In addition, a numerical model using Seep-3D software was developed to evaluate the efficiency of the cut-off wall to decrease the seepage over the dam’s foundation. The numerical results validated by instrumentation statistics resulted from 17-years dam operation. According to the results, after the drainage of the reservoir, the cutoff wall optimally reduced the hydraulic gradient by 0.08 from 2.35 and the water leakage by 3.1 m/s from 18.3 m/s.
This paper presents an enhanced constitutive model integrating deviatoric hardening with a modified yield surface for overconsolidated clayey soils in a general framework of Cam-clay type models. Its performance was assessed with the simulation of drained and undrained triaxial tests on three clays at different consolidation states in comparison to two critical state models. The proposed model satisfactorily estimates the shear resistance, while capturing the smooth nonlinearity of the soil response.
Shear triaxial tests at constant mean pressure were performed on an overconsolidated marl to study the shear response. Their simulation attests the importance of deviatoric hardening integration.
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the discharge flow pressure in the vertical silo and the hopper due to the use of insert (top cone with trunk cone bottom). Using the Insert inside the silos is one of the proposed solutions to avoid the problems of having funnel flow pattern, which has a significant effect on the distribution of flow pressure exerted on the silo wall and the hopper. The experiments were performed on a metal cylinder prototype; corn was used as a granular material, and the wall and hopper pressure distribution was measured by a special pressure transducer. The experiments revealed an important result in the flow pressure due to the change in the location of the insert. The experiments were conducted in Damascus University laboratories.