Canyons are among the most interesting geosites created by the erosive activity of the rivers, processes of weathering and erosion or tectonic activity and are distinguished for the aesthetic beauty of the shapes, the labyrinths of the valleys, the steepness of the slopes, the greatness of vertical walls, waterfalls, caves, etc., bearing high scientific, educational and touristic values. Albania has a considerable number of canyons due to the presence of a rich river network flowing through the variety of geological formations and tectonic faults. Outstanding are the wellformed canyons in limestone rocks with almost vertical walls such as Gradec canyon in Çorovoda, Lëngarica canyon in Përmet, Grunas canyon in Theth, etc. The only canyons which are formed on magmatic rocks are the canyons of Devoll. For their values, the most interesting canyons are included in the list of nature monuments as geomonuments. The most magnificent and frequented canyons for tourism in Albania are the Osum canyons, Gradec canyon, Lëngarica canyon and Nivica canyon. These distant impressing landforms, once forgotten and unexplored, are now attracting the attention of many tourists either for admiring their natural scenery, hiking and rafting or for curative tourism. However, despite their values the canyons are not enough known due to lack of information or poor promotion. Filling this gap has served this study where the geotouristic potential of the canyons is evaluated according to four criteria of Knapik.at.al such as accessibility, state of preservation, scientific value and education value (Solarska and Jary, 2010). The database of the canyons is organized in an inventory card which contains general and specific data of each geosite. The final product of this project will be a website that will inform the public and promote the values of the canyons of Albania.
Geological and scenic values of locations are the non-living curiosities that can be preserved and popularized a lot easier using the institutional background of geotourism, such as geoparks. UNESCO Global Geoparks Network is responsible for protecting and fostering natural, scenic and cultural values and especially geosites that are the exciting visible physical elements. Our goal was to quantify the geotourism potential around Csopak, a scenic village in the Balaton Uplands giving home for the headquarter of the Bakony-Balaton UNESCO Global Geopark. After designating 216 potential geosites using topographic and geological maps, we applied two assessment models: the Geosite Assessment Model (GAM) and the Modified Geosite Assessment Model (M-GAM). GAM has been applied with good results in Hungary on different areas, but M-GAM has not been used before. As M-GAM involves tourists into the process counting with their opinion, it may give a more realistic view of the geosites. The two methods produced different but comparable final values of geotourism potential counted from the Main Value and Additional Value scores. We discovered that the proportion of the difference of these values carries major information. The ratio of ΔAV/ΔMV used as linear functions and depicted on diagrams can derive which values are more important for the visitors. From this result we can draw conclusions about the future development trends: scientific or infrastructural values should be more effectively fostered. Using our results, geosites can be handled and developed as visitors expect it.
This paper makes the first attempt to measure economic disengagement in state-society relations on a regional level, using the case of Russia. An original composite index was calculated based on a number of indicators measuring different spheres of contact between the state and society. The study examines regional diversity in intensity of economic disengagement in state-society relations in Russia. It also attempts to identify determinants of economic disengagement on a regional level. Seeking to identify regional level predictors of the intensity of disengagement, the study focuses on the specificity of the Russian space – its federal structure based on a combination of territorial and ethnic principles. The results show that economic disengagement is least intense in regions belonging to the Russian Far North, which points to the role of physical-geographical factors and path dependence. They also reveal that residents of ethnically-defined regions tend to be less economically disengaged than residents of oblasts and krays. Moreover, the share of ethnic Russians is positively related to economic disengagement in the former regions, while it is not significant in the latter. These findings potentially point to differences between ethnic Russians and members of titular groups in terms of their intensity of interaction with the state in the economic sphere.
The Zádielska dolina (“Zadiel Gorge“) belongs to the most beautiful and from a natural science perspective to the most interesting landscape formations of the Slovak Karst. The area represents the National Nature Reserve in the National Park and is part the European Network of Protected Areas NATURA 2000. The site is characterized by climbing activity. This article provides suggestions of attractiveness in the field of climbing that respect the development of tourism in accordance with nature and landscape conservation. The basis for the proposals were theoretical knowledge, thorough analysis of the area and own experience with the issue. Recommendations from other climbing places and identification of problems between climbing and nature, have been key for us in making appropriate proposals. The increasing interest in adventure tourism, including climbing, means a global trend in tourism and therefore it is necessary to pay close attention to this issue.
The topic of an education-occupation mismatch of tertiary educated migrant workers in receiving countries is an important issue in contemporary research in international migration, especially in the context of growing international economic competition. In this article, we analyse the level of mismatch of tertiary educated migrant workers in the Czech labour market, with a particular focus on Ukrainian workers. Using a unique set of statistical data, several conclusions can be drawn from a longitudinal approach, as well as multiple regression analysis in order to identify possible determinants of the mismatch at a district level. First, the mismatch of tertiary educated migrants does exist and is growing over time. Second, it seems that the level of mismatch is higher in economically progressive districts with higher numbers of qualified domestic and foreign workers, which creates a higher level of competition in the labour market. As a result, a relatively higher share of tertiary educated migrant workers end up over-educated in professions they find in the secondary labour market in these districts. Using the example of Ukrainians, the progression of tertiary educated migrants into the Czech labour market over time faces rather limited vertical mobility, with a slight progression to more skilled occupations. This can be related to the complexity of factors from individual to institutional levels of analysis.
The distribution of international migrants is an essential part of socio-geographical differentiation. In addition to international migration, internal or domestic migration plays an important role in the geographical distribution of immigrants. Based on data from the population register, the Census, and a quantitative survey, we analysed the internal mobility of Ukrainian and Vietnamese immigrants, which are the first and third largest international migrant groups in the Czech Republic. Using the assimilation perspective, the results of the analysis indicate that each ethnic group behaves differently. Specifically, the concentration of these immigrants differed at both regional and neighbourhood levels.
There has been a large support given to building of cycling routes in Slovakia for last few years at all levels and many aspects. Not just legislative, strategic and technical point of view but also financial support is necessary to take in account. According to this big effort is necessary to be more focused on a question of evaluation of impacts on local communities. This article deals with analysis of cycling infrastructure impact on destination performance.
Rural areas of the Republic of Croatia are experiencing abandonment, which is especially intensive in the eastern part of the country. This paper aims to provide insights into places with specific spatial and functional characteristics, pustara settlements, within the rural landscape of the Baranja region, presenting their cultural and architectural heritage that needs comprehensive protection and conversion. The redevelopment potential, as well as the negative significance of abandonment of these sites, indicates the need for identifying the characteristics of these settlements: the tangible value of its built facilities and open spaces, its movable cultural heritage, as well as its intangible values. The main objectives were to determine desirable tangible and intangible pustara values by investigating place attachment among former pustara residents, and to provide information on domestic tourists’ preferences in visiting these settlements. The results indicate a common preference among former pustara residents and tourists for its architectural heritage: e.g. its settlement as a spatial unit and its parks. Additionally, tourists expressed preferences for recreational and entertainment facilities. Common interests, as well as highly expressed needs among former inhabitants and tourists, present the basis for establishing new functions and redevelopment plans.
The territory of the Posavje Folds offers many geotourism potentials reflecting in particular in rich mining heritage. For a long time, local communities have considered them mainly in the context of local problems, but nowadays we may see individual examples of successful revitalization of cave chambers and mining structures. All that has given rise to fantastic stories about the mining wealth of the underground world and the mining heritage interpreted with modern approaches and new findings. In addition to managers and heritage owners, the revitalization process also includes scientists, artists, architects and educators who, each in their own way, contribute to a holistic perspective of the values of the past in light of contemporary understanding of this type of heritage. As a result, the territory has witnessed the revitalization of the medieval lead and silver mine Padež pri Laškem, the former Laško coal mine machine room, which was transformed into the Strojnica Gallery, and the polymineral mine Sitarjevec within the last five years. All mentioned examples are cases of abandoned mining activities with long-lasting mining tradition, which left an imprint in the area in terms of the diverse social structure of the population and in terms of town development, which also allows us to evaluate from a distance the contribution to the construction of the railway between Vienna and Trieste, which put these towns on the European map of centres of industrial significance in the mid-19th century. Trains that still connect the Austrian capital with the Adriatic coast may in future, in light of sustainable green tourism, attract curious guests to stop and linger a while, which is the ultimate goal of the attempts of local communities to revitalise mining heritage. Meanwhile, the goals set can only be realised with the help of new and attractive tourist products that reflect own creativity related with tradition ranging from design ideas, music events, art installations, popular science evenings; in short, with contents that are suited to visitors of all ages.
When surveying the motivation side of travel and tourism, we can state that tourists consider in their travel decisions, certain landscape preferences – to a certain extent. It also seems to be evident, however, that the objective evaluation of a landscape is a hard task for researchers for numerous reasons. In recent decades, several attempts have been made to create such methods but it seems that, in Hungary at least, this topic is rather neglected. The aim of this study is to provide an evaluation method for the landscape preferences of passengers travelling on Hungarian railway lines, demonstrating how the landscape around the railways could become an attraction during the travel. We survey what types of landscape appearance would be needed in order to generate travel decisions for tourists and also how the travel experience itself could become a tourism product.