Toxocara canis of dogs and Toxocara vitulorum of cattle and buffalo are nematode parasites that cause serious economic and public health problems all over the world. This study aims to provide molecular data to identify and distinguish between Toxocara spp. from dogs, cattle and buffalo in Egypt. Moreover, constructing a phylogeny and phylogenetic relationships among these Toxocara spp. were performed through an analytic study of ATPase-6, a mitochondrial gene; 12S, small subunit ribosomal RNA gene and ITS-2, the second internal transcribed spacer nuclear ribosomal gene. T. vitulorum from cattle and buffalo were found to be almost identical. The ATPase- 6 and 12S regions showed 87.78 % and 90.38 % nucleotide similarity between T. canis and T. vitulorum, while for the ITS-2 region, only 78.38 % was found. Analysis of the three studied genes revealed that each Toxocara spp. has distinct molecular characteristics. Moreover, it was revealed that these genes, especially the ITS-2 gene, are useful and sensitive molecular markers for classifying and studying the phylogenetic analysis and relationships among closely related Toxocara spp. All sequences obtained in this study were registered in the GenBank under the accession numbers: MG214149 -MG214157.
The mouse bile duct tapeworm Hymenolepis microstoma, is a potentially zoonotic species with a wide variety of reported definitive hosts of rodent genera. In the present study the occurrence of H. microstoma in free-living small mammals in selected areas of Slovakia and the retrospective analysis of epidemiological data published in Slovakia were performed. Hymenolepis microstoma was detected in two animal species, the common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) of 186 small mammals examined from two ecosystems, urban and natural ecosystem of national park. No mention about the presence of this parasite in Slovakia in the past was found following a bibliographical search. Partial sequences of the nuclear paramyosin gene showed the shrew isolate placed in a subclade together with H. microstoma from Portugal, with high bootstrap value for its differentiation from the sister species Hymenolepis nana. Similarly, the analysis of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region placed the hamster isolate in the cluster composed of H. microstoma from Australia, Spain and Portugal. The Slovak isolate was the most distinctive sample among available H. microstoma, differing in 1.4 – 1.9% of nucleotides from the remaining isolates. The difference (seven of 17 nucleotide positions) was partially due to indel polymorphisms associated with two and five nucleotides. To our knowledge, these are the first reports of H. microstoma in Central Europe and also the first record of infection in the common shrew. A recently indicated zoonotic potential of H. microstoma along with a possibility of its direct transmission between animals and/or humans without the need of intermediate hosts pose a public health concern in contaminated areas of Slovakia. The use of molecular techniques may substantially facilitate more thorough understanding of the epidemiological situation of H. microstoma and related tapeworms in various ecosystems of the country.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and Western Blotting (WB) methods could contribute to the assessment of clinical outcomes in genotype-defined cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients. Twenty-nine human isolates and blood samples have been taken from patients who underwent surgery or percutaneous aspiration (PAIR) for therapeutic purposes at Ege University and Manisa Celal Bayar University Hospitals. All sera of patients were screened for the presence of E. granulosus IgG antibodies using in-house approved ELISA and WB methods. According to the ELISA results, five patients had high, thirteen patients had medium and eight patients had low specific antibody level response which ranged 1/640 -1/5000. Despite confirmed WB positivity three patients were found to be negative by ELISA. Immunoblot analysis of EgAg showed many protein bands with size of 8, 12, 20, 22, 24, 36, 75 and 90 kDa. Among of them, 8 – 12 kDa bands (90 %), 20 – 22 kDa and 36 kDa bands presented strong reactivity against human serum specimens. No serum samples from healthy control reacted with EgAg. Phylogenetic analysis of resulting COX1 and NAD1sequences has revealed that all patients in our study were infected with the E. granulosus G1-G3 genotype. There was no consistent correlation between results of ELISA and WB, the number or size of cysts and genotype. Our study brings a unique contribution in terms of relationship between serological investigation, disease genotypes and clinical outcomes.
The present work was designed to evaluate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and some vector-borne pathogens in dogs in Bulgaria. A total of 172 owned dogs, keeping outside, were included in the study. Fecal samples were examined using standard flotation and sedimentation methods. Blood samples were processed by Knott’s technique, SNAP™ 4Dx Plus Test (IDEXX) and Angio Detect™ Test (IDEXX). The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 64.5%. Eggs of hookworms (Ancylostoma sp. and Uncinaria sp.) were the most frequently detected (54.1%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (15.1%), Capillaria sp. (11.0%), Toxocara canis (6.4%), Cystoisospora sp. (4.1%), Sarcocystis sp. (2.3%), Toxascaris leonina (1.7%), Taenia sp. (1.2%) and Linguatula serrata (0.6%). In addition, hookworms were the most commonly involved in the cases of single infection (20.3%). Combinations between Capillaria sp./hookworms and T. vulpis/hookworms were the most common co-infections (4.1% and 2.9%, respectively). Blood samples revealed the presence of antibodies against Ehrlichia sp. (13.4%), Anaplasma sp. (13.4%) and Borrelia burgdorferi (1.7%). Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum were detected in 10.5% and 0.6% of the samples tested, respectively. Microfilariae of Dirofilaria repens were found in 5.8% of the blood samples. Additionally, the prevalence of D. immitis and Ehrlichia sp. was significantly higher in adult than in young dogs (p<0.05). In contrast, the gender was not considered as a risk factor contributing to the occurrence of infections.
Analysis of soil nematode feeding groups and functional guilds were used as a valuable tool to detect heavy metal pollution. Effects of cadmium (Cd) at 5 mg/kg, mercury (Hg) at 20mg/kg, combined Cd and Hg at 5+20mg/kg on the nematode communities were studied after three months application. Nematodes were collected from soil in rhizosphere of Morning glories (Pharhiris nil) which were applied as heavy metal accumulators and were grown in the experimental pots. Both single and combined heavy metals had marked effects on the nematode abundance, life-history strategies and feeding type composition. Bacteriovores and c-p 2 group were found to be the most abundant trophic group and functional guild, respectively. Acrobeloides and Pratylenchus were the most two abundant genera, decreasing number of them was responsible for the significant difference between control and polluted treatments. Cd-5 and Cd-Hg 5+20 presented lower values of nematode diversity index (H’) and evenness index (J’) than Hg-20. The combination of Cd and Hg showed lower nematode trophic diversity (TD), in comparison with single Cd or Hg. Conversely, heavy metals addition exhibited no pronounced effect on Maturity index (MI), structural index (SI) and enrichment index (EI). Our results demonstrate that genera composition is a better indicator to short-term heavy metal effects than some common indicator indices and emphasize that deeper assemblage analyses are needed for a correct interpretation of short-term disturbance on soil nematodes.
Regarding geographical distribution and clinical relevance, the most common canine geohelminths are Toxocara canis, ancylostomatids, and Trichuris vulpis. Canine intestinal parasites from the soil and sand present an important potential serious human health hazard, especially for the children preschool and school – age. This paper aimed to establish the degree of contamination of soil and sand with zoonotic parasites from the canine feces and the degree of risk they could pose for human health in public places and playgrounds in the city of Niš. Our parasitological study involved 200 soil samples and 50 sand samples from the public parks in the city of Niš in southeastern Serbia (43°19′15″N, 21°53′45″ E). From several locations, about 100 g of soil and sand was collected based on the bioclimatic indices. Parasitological diagnosis was performed using conventional qualitative and quantitative coprological methods, abiding by the recommendations about the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. In 38 – 46 % of soil samples and 40 % of sand samples seven species of endoparasites were diagnosed. In the samples of soil, a medium and high degree of contamination with the ascarid T. canis (14 – 22 %) was detected, as well as a low and medium degree of contamination with ancylostomatids (4 – 12 %), and in the samples of sand, a variable degree of contamination with the helminths T. canis (26 %) and A. alata (16 %) was found. A statistically significant difference was found in the contamination with A. alata eggs between the samples of sand and samples of soil. The studied public surfaces represent the reservoir of zoonotic parasites, which is a public health problem requiring a synergistic action of several factors to be successfully resolved, i.e. the implementation of prevention, surveillance, and control measures.
The aim of the study is to present all distribution sites of Bombus semenoviellus in Poland reported between 1988 and 2019. The increase of species dispersion was concluded, especially in the central part of the country, as well as the occurrence in the high Karkonosze and Tatry mountains. This is likely the effect of progressing climate change, as well as the increase in climate continentalism in Europe. Differences between summer and winter temperatures favour the spread of this Siberian bumblebee species throughout the continent. Many specimens were found on plants originating from its central and west Asia. Those plants also occur in eastern and central Europe which could have helped this bumblebee spread west throughout Europe. B. semenoviellus will increase its range towards Western Europe. Based on observations so far, it is not possible to determine its invasive features and increased competitiveness for food and nesting places in relation to other bumblebee species.
The three-year study on borage was conducted in Lublin, SE Poland. The aims were to investigate the flowering pattern and abundance, and the attractiveness (in terms of nectar and pollen production) for flower-visiting insects, mainly bees. Insect visitation and the effect of pollinators on fruit set and seed set were assessed as well. Flowering of borage started in the latter half of June and lasted eight weeks. The mean number of flowers · m−2 of the crop was 4570 per season. A borage flower produced on average 4.0 mg of nectar with a mean sugar concentration of 31.5%. The mean total sugar amount secreted in nectar was 1.2 mg. The pollen amount · flower−1 was 1.1 mg. A borage plant can supply insects with 1.1 g of nectar sugars and 1.1 g of pollen. The estimated nectar sugar yield and pollen yield per 1 m2 of the crop were similar, i.e. 5.2 g. Bees accounted for 73.0% of all insect visits to the borage flowers. The presence of insect pollinators increased the fruit set by 43.3% and seed set by 26.8%.
Between 2013 and 2018, there was an outbreak of sudden foraging honey bee deaths in Turkey’s Çukurova Region from the beginning of February to the middle of March, a period of time when the sowing of maize seeds occurs in the region. Upon returning, the affected bees were unable to enter the hive because of unbalanced flying and walking. Deaths were seen at apiaries located on plains or near plains where maize seeds were sowed. When winds blew from the direction of the plains towards the hives, honey bee deaths increased, but when the weather was rainy, honey bee deaths decreased or stopped. Honey bee losses were mainly between 30% and 80%. Investigations related to the honey bee deaths were carried out in the affected apiaries using on-site inspection and laboratory tests. The main reason of deaths would be linked to the clothianidin coated maize seeds used in the plain during sowing period. No remarkable correlation with any bee pathogens was detected related to the sudden and prevalent honey bee deaths.