The structure of the canine carpal joint is complex. This small joint consists of articulations that include the antebrachiocarpal, middle, carpometacarpal, and intercarpal joint surfaces. A large number of ligaments and tendons support and stabilise the carpus in dogs. Many injuries of this joint in dogs are not correctly recognised, diagnosed, or treated due to the limited use of diagnostic imaging methods. Radiography, the most common of them, has extensive application in diagnosing the causes of lameness in small animals. Other techniques, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging visualise other joint structures and surrounding soft tissues. However, these imaging modalities are rarely used to diagnose diseases and injuries of the canine carpus at present. The main reason for this is the small amount of research carried out and the lack of a properly described methodology for the use of imaging techniques. The wide use of all diagnostic imaging tools in the diagnosis of diseases and injuries of the wrist joint in humans shows that conducting studies on dogs could expand current knowledge. The use of these techniques in veterinary medicine could facilitate diagnosis and subsequent therapy of carpal disorders in dogs. MRI is the most frequently used imaging method in human medicine for visualisation of abnormalities of joints. This method could become a valuable part of the detection of inflammatory, traumatic, and degenerative diseases of the carpal joint in dogs.
A research project is underway aiming to develop a field diagnostic tool for six important viruses of the pig sector, namely: African swine fever virus (ASFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus (PCV2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV).
Material and Methods
To obtain a preliminary sounding of the interest in this type of instrument among its potential operators, a questionnaire was drawn up and submitted to three categories of stakeholders: farmers, veterinarians, and others (including scientific and technical staff working on animal farms). Four countries participated: Italy, Greece, Hungary, and Poland.
In total, 83 replies were collected and analysed in a breakdown by stakeholder type and pertinence, where the areas were the importance of the main diseases within the different countries, diagnostic tool operational issues, and economic issues.
The main end-users of this kind of instrument are expected to be private veterinarians and pig producers. The infectious agents seeming to be most interesting to diagnose with the instrument are PRRSV, SIV, PPV, and PCV2. The most decisive parameters which have been selected by the stakeholders are sensitivity, cost, simplicity, and time required to obtain results. The economic issue analysis showed that the majority of those who would prefer to buy rather than rent the device are willing to pay up to €3,000 for a diagnostic field tool.
The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in cats in eastern Poland, and to determine the factors associated with the infection.
Material and Methods
PCRs were performed to detect Bartonella DNA in the whole blood of 672 cats from four regions in eastern Poland (the Lublin, Podlasie, Masovian, and Subcarpathian provinces). The association between the previously selected variables and the dependent variable (presence of Bartonella DNA) was investigated using a logistic regression model.
The overall prevalence of infection was 40.48%. All PCR positive cats were infected with B. henselae. The living conditions of the animals (free outdoor roaming), mixed breed cats, Subcarpathian region, and absence of tick control were significant risk factors associated with Bartonella infection at a 95% confidence level.
Cats in eastern Poland appear to be at risk of a bartonellosis epizootic. Factors which seem to impact the likelihood of infection in cats and factors which seem not to impact it have been suggested. We advocate additional research into the ways bartonellosis spreads, its geographical scope, and the factors that favour its development.
Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (ovine pulmonary adenomatosis, OPA, Jaagsiekte) is a chronic contagious bronchoalveolar carcinoma caused by the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. Since effective treatment and a vaccination procedure are not currently possible, control and eradication of the disease is difficult. It leads to serious economic losses around the world, therefore studies are currently underway in order to design control and eradication programmes. In this study, levels and changes in selected tumour markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA) 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, and alphafetoprotein (AFP)-3) and their diagnostic significance were investigated.
Material and Methods
A total of 30 sheep were used. Clinical examinations were performed and blood samples were obtained before slaughter from all animals with presumed OPA. Blood samples with positive OPA results by macroscopic and histopathological examination were included in the study as the experimental group and numbered 20. Sheep totalling 10 had negative OPA results and provided control samples.
CEA levels were similar in both groups, and the differences were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, and AFP-3 levels were higher in the OPA group than the control group and with statistical significance (P < 0.05). In all OPA animals, CA 125 levels were higher than 1 U/mL.
serum CAs and AFP levels increase significantly in adenomatous sheep. These tumour markers are thought to facilitate the diagnosis of OPA.
The impact of regulated drip-irrigation on productivity and fruit quality of tomato ‘Tofane’ has been studied under a warm dry desert climate in southern Algeria. Yield, fruit weight and size, water content and parameters of fruit quality – total soluble solids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamin C, pH and titratable acidity were determined. Two irrigation treatments were applied in 2012 and 2013: T1, optimal irrigation (100% evapotranspiration – ETc) during the whole growth period (growth stages I, II and III); T2, optimal irrigation during I and II stages, and regulated deficit irrigation (67% ETc) during stage III (from fruit set to full fruit maturity of first and second bunch). T1 treatment during the whole season showed the highest values of soil water potential (Ψsoil), between −0.02 MPa and −0.06 MPa, on depths of 0.3 and 0.6 m, respectively. During stage III, regulated deficit irrigation caused the lowest Ψsoil values, which were between −0.1 MPa and −0.12 MPa on a soil depth of 0.3 and 0.6 m, respectively. Deficit irrigation caused significant decrease of water content in fruits and not significant decrease of fruit weight and size, as well as fruit yield while water saving for irrigation amounted to 10%. Comfort-irrigated tomato plants produced fruits containing significantly higher titratable acidity, total soluble solids and vit. C content. There was a tendency to decrease carotenoid content and increase phenolic content in both years of the study. Due to the possibility of water saving with not significant yield decrease, it seems that the reduction of water use in growth stage III would be an adequate strategy for tomato cultivation in hot, dry climate.
Ultrafiltration of skim cow’s milk with a UF10-PAN membrane at volume reduction ratios (VRRs) of 2 and 3 was performed. The ultrafiltration retentates obtained were used for production of probiotic yoghurts with three different starters. A control sample was prepared using skim cow’s milk. All yoghurts were analysed according to the following parameters: titratable acidity, dry matter, organoleptic characteristics, number of specific microorganisms (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and the total count of viable lactic acid bacteria for 28 d of storage. The results showed that the increase in the VRR during ultrafiltration increased the titratable acidity, as well as the dry matter of all yoghurts. Ultrafiltration concentration led to an increase in the count of viable lactic acid bacteria in all yoghurts which improved their functional properties. The highest values of the total number of viable lactic acid bacteria were determined in yoghurts obtained with starter 1CM, followed by starters MZ2 and ZD for both VRRs. Probiotic yoghurts with the highest organoleptic evaluation were obtained from ultrafiltration retentates at VRR = 2 and starters 1CM and MZ2.
A total of 558 specimens of black-bellied anglerfish Lophius budegassa (Spinola, 1807) were collected by the vessels engaged in commercial trawl fishing in the Central Aegean Sea between September 2017 and August 2018 in order to determine age and growth. Ageing was based on growth ring counts of transverse sections of the illicium (first ray of the dorsal fin). By reading the illicium, individuals were found within II-XI age groups. Total lengths and weights ranged between 12.0 – 65.0 cm and 24.5 – 4682.0 g, respectively. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated for males, females and combined sexes of L. budegassa. The results are compared with previous studies.
Childhood and adolescent obesity is a public health concern worldwide. However, little attention has been paid on status of overweight and body composition of Indian Bengali urban middle and high SES population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of overweight and body composition status by age and sex in children, adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 4194 unmarried school and college students (1999 males and 2195 females) aged 7–21 years belonging to the Bengali Hindu Population in Kolkata, India. The survey period was from 1999 to 2011. Anthropometry of participants were measured. Age and sex specific ≥85 percentile of body mass index (BMI) for children (<18 years of age) and BMI ≥23 kg/m2 (≥18 years of age) for adults were used to define overweight. Fat percent, upper arm fat area (UAFA) and upper arm muscle area (UAMA) were estimated. Simple linear regression was performed to check trend of changes with age. The overall prevalence of overweight was 14.8% in both sexes. Mean fat percent was higher in females than males (23.5% vs 13.5% respectively; p<0.001) and it increased by 0.18% (0.02) in males and 0.56% (0.02) in females per year (both p<0.001). UAMA gradually increased with age in both sexes and increasing rate per year was by 2.07 (0.04) cm2 in males and 1.19 (0.04) cm2 in females (both p<0.001). However, UAFA increased by 0.41 (0.03) cm2 and 0.90 (0.03) cm2 every year in males and females respectively (both p<0.001). Sum of biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailliac skinfolds increased by 1.66 (0.06) mm and 0.5 (0.07) mm per year in females and males respectively (both p<0.001). Overall prevalence of overweight was the same in both sexes but adipose tissue was higher and muscularly was lower in females than males.
The properties of biomass-based fuel and combustion tests showed that logging residues are promising renewable energy sources. The data used in this study were collected from four clear-felling areas in Järvselja Training and Experimental Forest Centre, Southeast Estonia in 2013–2014. Logging was carried out by harvesters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) dominated stands with a small admixture of other tree species according to the cut-to-length method and logging residues were placed in heaps. The aim of this research is to assess different characteristics of logging residues (quantity, moisture content, energetic potential, ash content and amount) in clear-felling areas. The highest load of slash was measured on the birch dominated study site, where the dry weight of the logging residues was 29 t ha−1. Only the branch fraction moisture content on the black alder dominated site (35.4%) was clearly different from respective values on other sites (21.6–25.4%). The highest calorific value of the residues was assessed with the residues from the birch dominated site, where in moist sample it was 365 GJ ha−1 and in dry matter 585 GJ ha−1. The heating value of the fresh residues is highest in coniferous trees. The highest ash content in branch segments was registered for the black alder dominated site. Järvselja data indicate higher quality in conifer dominated sites, yet a higher load of logging residues in broadleaf dominated stands.
Kidney stone disease is one of the most common urologic disorders worldwide. The incidence of kidney stones disease is increasing all over the world. It is a multifactorial disease accompanied by various factors. The dietary factor is one of the most important risk factors for the formation and recurrence of kidney stone disease. Formation and recurrence of kidney stone disease can be prevented by modifying our day to day dietary habits. Fewer intakes of animal protein, higher intake of fluid, higher intake of fruits, and higher intake of green leafy vegetables, which contain a low amount of oxalate, can prevent the formation of kidney stones and recurrence of kidney stones. From this review, it may be presumed that the higher prevalence rate of kidney stone disease in northeast India may be the dietary factors accompanied by environmental and climatic conditions of the region.