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Open access

Zdeněk Vacek, Stanislav Vacek, Jiří Slanař, Lukáš Bílek, Daniel Bulušek, Igor Štefančík, Ivo Králíček and Karel Vančura

Abstract

In time of climate change, close-to-nature silviculture is growing in importance as a tool for future forest management. The paper study the tree layer and natural regeneration of monospecific Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), trough mixed spruce-beech to dominant European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in Jizerské hory Mts., the Czech Republic. In the locality, shelterwood and selection system have been applied since 2000. The research objectives were to evaluate production parameters, structural diversity, species richness, natural regeneration dynamics and radial growth of individual tree species in relation to climatic factors and air pollution. The stand volume on permanent research plots amounted to 441 – 731 m3 ha−1 in initial stage of transformation. Natural regeneration showed high expansion of beech and decrease of spruce compared to mature tree species composition. Radial growth of spruce was in significant negative correlation with SO2 and NOX concentrations compared to no effect on beech increment. Moreover, spruce was more sensitive to significant years with extreme low radial growth. Beech was more stable in radial growth. Spruce was more resistant to air pollution and climatic stress in mixed stands. Low temperature was limiting factor of radial growth together with climate extremes (such as strong frosts and more frequent droughts) and biotic factors (bark beetle, beech scale). Close-to-nature management supporting admixed tree species should lead in future to diversification of stand structure toward higher species, spatial and age structure to mitigate negative effect of climatic change.

Open access

Shan Xiong, Jinglai Li, Yanling Mu and Zhenqing Zhang

Abstract

Morroniside is one of the most important iridoid glycosides from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability studies of morroniside were conducted on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A rat in situ intestinal perfusion model was used to characterize the absorption of morroniside. Caco-2 cells were used to examine the transport mechanisms of morroniside. The pharmacokinetic study of morroniside exhibited linear dose-proportional pharmacokinetic characteristics and low bioavailability (4.3 %) in SD rats. Its average P eff value for transport across the small intestinal segments changed from (3.09 ± 2.03) × 10−6 to (4.53 ± 0.94) × 10−6 cm s−1. In Caco-2 cells, the P app values ranged from (1.61 ± 0.53) × 10−9 to (1.19 ± 0.22) × 10−7 cm s−1 for the apical to basolateral side and the P ratio values at three concentrations were all lower than 1.2. Morroniside showed poor absorption and it might not be a specific substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp).

Open access

Andra Chiriac, Camelia Badea and Cristian Băicuş

Abstract

Giant cell arteritis is a common systemic vasculitis affecting the elderly, with maximum prevalence in the 7th decade of age, targeting aortic derived medium and large vessels of the neck and head. Diagnosis is established on a biopsy specimen of the temporal artery wall, through pathological confirmation of panarteritis, typically characterized by mononuclear cell infiltrate, with the 1990 ACR criteria often used in clinical practice.

We present the case of a patient with a new onset headache and systemic inflammation, did not fulfil the classical diagnostic criteria, nor did the temporal artery biopsy (TAB) provide a positive result. However, the ultrasonographical features, clinical evolution and response to corticosteroid therapy confirmed the diagnosis. This patient had bilateral presence of the halo sign on color duplex ultrasonography (CDUS), cited as a highly specific feature, when compared to the ACR criteria as a standard reference. We employed its positive likelihood-ratio (LR+) of 43 as previously estimated, while considering a low pre-test probability for a positive diagnosis (15%), to calculate a post-test probability of 88%, leading to our decision to treat him as having giant cell arteritis. Remission of the headache and rebound phenomena when tapered off steroid therapy substantially contributed to the positive diagnosis, underlining the importance of future studies needing to use clinical evolution as a standard of reference.

Open access

Grażyna Gierczak

Abstract

Introduction. Wacława Juszkiewicz-Kamieńska throughout her life served the sick, wounded and those in need of help. With great dedication, she became involved in social work for the nursing and veteran community.

Aim. Presentation of a personal model of nurse, liaison officer and social activist.

Material and methods. The work uses a biographical method. The technique of document and intelligence analysis was applied.

Results. Wacława Juszkiewicz-Kamieńska became the model of a nurse who developed her own personality by serving the other person. From the first days of the war, as a nurse, she actively participated in the care of wounded soldiers and partisans, the sick and those in need of help. She served unselfishly in conspiratory outpatient clinics, sanitary points of the Polish Red Cross and in the Holy Trinity Hospital in Piotrków Trybunalski. In the post-war period, for eleven years, she conducted a vaccination campaign against tuberculosis, which at that time was a huge social problem. She became involved in training nurses and students. She was a co-creator of the Polish Nursing Association.

Conclusions. Wacława Juszkiewicz-Kamieńska became the model of a nurse worthy of imitating and devoted to the development of nursing in the Piotrkowska Land. She deserves to remain in our memory forever.

Open access

Marta Maciejewska, Paweł Fuć, Marta Galant and Monika Kardach

Abstract

In the M–T–E (man – technology – environment) system, human has a main influence on aircraft. In the article focused on M–T relations, which means human – technology, more accurately on a man impact on a plane, which is specify as human factor [3]. The role of human in this system can lead to an accident, caused by human mistake. In this article fa main question is how man effects on maintenance aircraft. To purpose the analysis the research was made with use of technical object – a simulator, which is located in Simulator Research Laboratory in Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology. The subject of analysis was a correctness of performing procedures, which every pilot is obligated to make before start operation. Based on tabular research result the analysis of chosen area was made.

Open access

Agnieszka Chrzan-Rodak, Barbara Ślusarska, Grzegorz Nowicki, Marlena Ogórek, Danuta Zarzycka, Barbara Niedorys and Ewelina Dziedzic

Abstract

Introduction. Social competence is a soft skill that allows, among other things, for better communication with the patient, establishing and maintaining a therapeutic relationship and motivation of the patient. Social competence is a guarantee of care quality and a high level of satisfaction of the patient and his or her family, when it comes to the care provided. Social competence also has a positive impact on nurses, because it is a factor protecting them from burning out, and facilitating cooperation in the therapeutic team.

Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the level of social competence of professionally active nurses as well as to determine relationship between social competence and selected socio-demographic and work-related factors.

Material and methods. The present study included 291 nurses from the economically active population, aged from 23 to 63 years. Diagnostic survey and Social Competence Questionnaire by Anna Matczak (SCQ) were used in this study.

Results. As many as 37.8% of participating nurses demonstrated high levels of social competence (7th-10th sten) in intimate situations. Average levels (5th-6th sten) were characteristic for 40.5% of respondents in social exposure situations. When it comes to social competence in situations requiring assertiveness they were typically at average level (5th-6th sten) with 39.9% of nurses fitting this score. The overall result for social competence of nurses was low (36.1% of respondents) and average (34.4%). Place of residents and the postgraduate education were among the socio-demographic factors that determined significantly higher levels of social competence among nurses.

Conclusions. Nurses represent low and average levels of social competence. There is a further need for research on social competence among nurses and implementation of training programs that will help them develop higher levels social skills.

Open access

Maria Kózka and Wioletta Skowron

Abstract

Introduction. Satisfaction with life and its determinants are components of human well-being, which the individual assesses in the area of quality of life, based on the own adopted criteria. Of particular interest is the recognition of these factors in people who are struggling with chronic diseases such as ulcerative colitis.

Aim. The aim of the work was to get to know the level of life satisfaction as well as its determinants such as acceptance of the disease and generalized self-efficacy of patients with ulcerative colitis.

Material and methods. The prospective study included 102 patients with diagnosed ulcerative colitis, who were tested for the level of life satisfaction and the level of disease acceptance and generalized self-efficacy. Descriptive statistics, parametric and nonparametric tests were used for data analysis. Correlation analyzes for variables expressed in ordinal scales were made using r-Pearson correlation. Significance was assumed at the level of p <0.05.

Results. The level of life satisfaction, acceptance of the disease and generalized self-efficacy in the subjects were reduced. The level of life satisfaction was dependent on the level of self-efficacy and acceptance of the disease. The level of life satisfaction of the respondents correlated with the generalized own effectiveness and acceptance of the disease. A higher level of life satisfaction was obtained by respondents with a higher level of disease acceptance and convinced of effective coping with difficult situations. Men presented better results than women.

Conclusions. Satisfaction with life and its determinants in patients with ulcerative colitis were reduced. The respondents with vocational education achieved lower results than those with secondary and higher education. Women presented lower variable levels than men. The level of satisfaction was dependent on the acceptance of the disease and on the generalized own effectiveness.

Open access

Waldemar Mironiuk

Abstract

The article presents a modern method of modeling stability and unsinkability of vessels using physical models of warships and merchant ships. Model tests of watercraft are carried out primarily to assess their marine properties in various operational states. The purpose of this research is to create technically useful calculation methods for fore-casting the behavior of a vessel at sea in various meteorological conditions. The main role played by model tests and measurements on real objects is the verification of these methods. Both types of experiments are also a source of inspiration for creating new modified mathematical models and accounting methods based on them. These tests can contribute to the improvement of the safety of vessels at sea.