The article focuses on a hashtags as a tool of networked culture and networked social movements, and – at the same time – on self-expression phenomenon of a selfie. Although today hashtags, in particular, can been seen as a frequently used weapon in information wars and a tool of propaganda 2.0, seen from historical perspective, this very tool aligns itself first and foremost with emancipatory forces in the Internet history. These forces, expressed in A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace and in participatory ideals of Web 2.0 are now in withdrawal.
As the Internet is now in a peculiar development phase, ruled by the logic of surveillance capitalism, those early ideals of free speech and exchange of ideas are now overshadowed by a “darkening of the digital dream (Shoshana Zuboff).
The central argument suggests that the “Kardashian moment” on the one hand, and Occupy Wallstreet, on the other hand, constituted a point in time where new media affordances and social phenomena were aligned. At the same time, both hashtag and selfie can be viewed as a response to the betrayalof individualization processes started in the 1960s, then carried on and amplified by the early Internet, and in the end commodified by the growing Internet giants and established structures of power.
One of the roles of media research is to explain social phenomena. The Internet became a place where society expresses itself and where society could be influenced or even manipulated. Therefore, online communication analysis becomes a tool that is expected to guarantee the transparency of the social communication process. Unfortunately, the size of the Internet makes analysis difficult, and traditional methods of analysing communication are not always enough or force the researcher to focus on a fragmentary data. The author asks a question which research methods are suitable for Internet research and allow to improve transparency. It focuses on the method group referred to in the article as Mass Automated Internet Analysis. In the final part, the author shows examples of several – existing or being developed – research methods and techniques (including data collection and data analysis field), what research methods can improve the quality of digital communications research.
While in our accelerated world everything seems to change, basic values are here to stay. I believe one such aspect is education and training. Although our educational system is built on a relatively permanent basis, instructional methodology on the whole has undergone substantial changes despite that all of the educational system has preserved its role in transmitting, presenting, and preserving knowledge. Since in our fast 21st-century world myriads of facts and fake or questionable information is available, students require new knowledge along with new and perhaps different answers. We believe that education, due to its ability to provide scientifically sound answers to the respective challenges, is vital today. Recent paradigm shifts have led to fundamental alterations in the form of information and knowledge acquisition supported by modern, state-ofthe-art ICT-based methodological solutions and learning environments. The study focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of such learning support schemes or solutions.
The following article is devoted to the discussion about the structure, linguistic phenomena and genres occurring in the newspaper edited by the students of Polish Philology at the University of Rzeszów, who belong to the Student Journalists’ Club. Besides discussing topics of interest to young people, the article also describes the language used by the editors of the magazine, including references to poetry, songs or advertising slogans. Furthermore, press genres presented in the journal are briefly discussed. Finally, the article also draws attention to the readership of the press in Poland.
Organisational communication in the age of artificial intelligence (AI) development is an opportunity but also a challenge. Thanks to the changing media space and the development of technology, it is possible to automate work, increase the effectiveness and power of influence and distribution of content. However, they also raise questions concerning risks, ranging from those associated with the social area (reducing the number of jobs) to the ethics of communication and the ethics of the professional profession of public relations (still PR ethics or the AI ethics in PR). The article will outline the opportunities and concerns resulting from the use of AI in communication of an organisation.
Objectives: On social media, or in the world of the so-called like economy, highly targeted advertising has become reality: whereas previously advertisers only suspected the whereabouts of their customers, now they know it exactly based on well-defined parameters. Likes have become a new standard of value. With the increased popularity of Like buttons, influencer marketing and content marketing have also gained in importance. This paper aims to explore the persuasion strategies used by visual content marketing as a tool of visual rhetoric. Methodology: After reviewing the relevant literature, the paper presents a case study from the field of wine communication: using the methodology of content analysis and a qualitative approach, it examines the visual and verbal characteristics of 100 Instagram posts of Hungarian wineries. The examination focused on content from a semiotic aspect, complementary verbal elements (captions, hashtags), the assumed intention of content marketing, and the characteristics of visual storytelling. Findings: Although wine communication is very much about creating a personal feeling, there was not a single person on 61 of the 100 examined Instagram photos. The potential of branded hashtags is exploited by almost every winery in their communication. The most dominant content types were the informative, aesthetically pleasing, and explicit advertising content. Suggestions: To obtain the loyalty of users, companies need a well-considered communication strategy tailored to the target audience. The most relevant social media principles are the following: long-term strategy, careful planning, conscious implementation, thorough information about and respect for the potential target audience, and content which is valuable and interesting for the target group and has real impact on its behaviour. It could also enhance user loyalty if posts had more added value. The methodology of storytelling could be exploited in wine communication for the following types of content: 1. advice and education: providing background knowledge (winemaking, viticulture, design, wine–food pairing) or instructions (“how to” videos e.g. on bottle opening); 2. help to users (information on moderate wine consumption, wine and a healthy lifestyle); 3. entertainment (people behind the bottle, family and historical stories, wine legends, anecdotes). In addition, creating a personal feeling is crucial in wine communication, which is specializing in handling uncertainty: winemakers can act as influencers in their field not only when selling wine but also in social media marketing.
The number of marketing communications tools and channels is steadily increasing – in addition, this growth has been accelerated since the emergence of the Internet and social media. On the one hand, there is an increasing dilemma of which tools one should choose from the plentiful options, and, on the other hand, the (material, human, and time) resources devoted to this are limited. This is valid for the marketing communications of “classic” products, services, and countries. This review article attempts to present the variety of available options with the help of the POE (paid, owned, earned) model and describe their advantages and disadvantages. The novelty of the study is that it focuses on a review of country communication campaigns and initiatives. It offers various visual examples for the different components of the POE model, clarifying the paid media, owned media, and earned media options for country brand communication. It mostly uses examples from Hungary, but other countries’ good practices are also included. Finally, as a result of the analysis, the article summarizes the possible ways of country brand communication according to the POE model in a summary table, which may also contribute to the work of academics and practitioners in the field.
The development of strong service brand confers market advantage under conditions of strong economic competition (Nádasi, 2016). In creating a strong service brand, the first steps include the elaboration of the service brand identity. The goal of this study consisted in applying the socio-scientific-based brand identity model of Burmann et al. (2017) in the analysis of the service brand identities of three Cluj-Napoca-based software and IT companies. The results of the analysis have shed light on the points of parity of the service brand identities of software and IT companies and highlighted the brand identity elements that enable differentiation (points-of-difference). The common points of the service brand identity of the Cluj-Napoca-based software and IT companies consisted in the emphasis on technical competences as well as customer and relationship orientation. Their differentiation was possible along their values and personality, which represent the symbolic benefits of service brand identity. Their symbolic differentiation also resulted in the differentiation of their offers.
During a communication act, the source sends a message to one or more addressees, T, using a channel and a code, D, so that the message will not be received by certain members of a population, X. It follows that a communication act can be represented through the system (T, D, X), where T, D, and X are parts of a population, T is not empty, and T and X are disjoint sets. Using such a model, we can approach some issues of the communication sciences from a set-theoretic perspective. In this study, the main types and effectiveness conditions of the communication acts are investigated.