In his critique of the excessive influences of the personalistic philosophy on the theological construct that some of the most significant orthodox authors of the present are guided by, Jean‐Claude Larchet widely explains why the relation of the christian toward the body in the spiritual education of the more recent generations of the orthodox christians is vastly neglected. On another place he exposes a voluminous summary of the orthodox church tradition on the christian faith as a method of healing the passions, picturing the role of the traditional christian terms ascetism, athletics and agon (struggle) in the orthodox theology and advocating for the neccessity of their reafirmation in the christian upbringing of the modern people. The physical culture of the orthodox christians should be determined in the shape of explication of the christian endeavour as bodily discipline, considering the neccessary role of the body in bringing up the virtues, and also the importance of healing the body from the passions and other forms of attachment as the disorders of spiritual health.
The paper analyzes spiritual stumbling of modern man which in addition to other general aspects of life has also led to sport degradation to only one dimesion ‐ the dimension of the result covering particular material interests of having power and being popular to which all other sport components including playing as the most honourable ingredient, which in terms of anthropology defines man as a being whose essential characteristic is playing, are inferior. Spiritual stumbling of modern man is a result of ratiocentrism (that is, his abandoning the concept of theocentrism) with dispair and loss of morality turning the complex body‐spirit bond into an instrument and the sport competition itself into an alienating form of achieving results at all costs. As a result, athletes themselves as main participants in competitions (either against other competitors or against themselves) have become an instrument‐tool for gaining profit. Spiritual stumbling have generated moral crisis and left sports and their participants without any human dimension of existence degrading them to a single physical dimension and its merciless and brutal exploitation.
Đorđe Stefanović, Violeta Šiljak, Slađana Mijatović and Vladan Vukašinović
The scientific contribution of this paper consists of an innovative approach to the issues of Orthodox faith and sport, which opens up a new creative area for theology itself, where sport also gets new opportunities. Given the known "affair" in almost all sports branches, which illustrate the state of "alarming helplessness", the contribution of faith in solving it is indisputable, especially in the way advocated in this research work. The primary goal is to extract from the plethora of theological literature those contents that can encourage the creative responsibility of all positive factors of sports events, from the athletes themselves, through their managers and club officials to the fans. Recognizing these problems and referring to theological sources as "clear content", without the bias of the members, with critical awareness, qualifies work to search and find adequate answers to the asked questions. The mere fact that a new research field has been opened, without the intention to make the last word on this, points to the scientific contribution of this paper.
Physical culture with the man in its centre has always been an integral part of social events and troubles in various times and ages. Regardless the need to adjust its theory and practice to the given requirements and social circumstances of the time it has always been stretched between rationalism and theanthropos‐centrism. Rationalism and its right wing the Enlightenment had formed deep furrows in the area of physical culture, (too) since the age of Pythagoras, Epicurus, Plato and later Origen and the Neoplatonists and Descartes' ''I think, therefore I am''. The great Njegoš made a clear judgement of the general effects of Rationalism in his work The Ray of the Microcosm: ''You, Pythagoras and you, Epicurus, ... You have degraded a being a man.'' Indeed, only a glimpse at today's events and the development of sport and physical exercise is enough to prove his words to be true. On the other hand, thenathropos‐centrism with its theory and practice bring back hope that not all is lost, when everything is lost (R.P. Nogo). Theanthroposcentrism or, God‐man centrism as it can be called, approaches man with Love and belief that physical exercises is divine food for the human being. And that the food is given to him so that he can master the good as gifted from the Creator, to stand firm, get strong and divinized. Therefore, we can say that Rationalism and Thanthropos‐centrism are two views of and two approaches to man (even) in modern times. Behind the first one there is pridewhereas behind the second one there isLove. It is up to man himself to choose his way.
Spirit and body of the man living in the world of modern technology are discussed in the paper. The entire life of modern man is under the pressure of rapid and far‐reaching changes in economy, organisation, education, self‐image. The relations between the spirit and the body on the one side and illness and health, money, media, narcissism, morality and national identity on the other side are studied in the article. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between the world of modern science and technology and the quality of life focusing on the mind and body. The fact emphazised in the conclusion is that the nature of Western ‐ European civilization has been changing with predominant turning to the SELF, to the absolute interest of an invidual in terms of materialism. The result of this civilizational turn is jeopardizing the spirit and the body of modern man.
Visual impairment as a congenital condition or acquired state is due to: eye diseases, physical injuries, falls, brain injuries, infections, etc. In relation to the degree of visual impairment, there are blind and low vision persons.
Due to insufficient or non-existent visual information at an early stage of development, children with visual impairment are not aware of their own body and space, therefore they have problems with their own motion. The motor development of children with visual impairment is slow, which manifests through delayed walking, inaptitude, clumsiness, frequent fall and bad coordination. On the other hand, it is possible that the ultimate level of motor abilities of people with visual impairment can be approximate or the same as people without visual impairment.
For an appropriate approach to physical exercise it is necessary to consider the following in a person with visual impairment: the amount and type of vision, physical, functional, health and mental state. The basic characteristics of implementing physical exercises with this population include: adaptation of teaching methods, adaptation of the exercise space and selection of appropriate requisites and equipment.
The way of acquiring knowledge of the low vision children is visual information (regardless of the poor quality of their reception), and for blind children there are audible and tactile information. A constant, detailed verbal description of motions and movements is necessary in order to explain incomplete visual information and associate it with successive tactile information. An individual-led activity ensures understanding of the person with VI on the required movement. The analytical method is the dominant method during instructions and training.
Sports in which people with visual impairment can participate are: athletics, chess, judo, ninepin bowling, tenpin bowling, shooting, swimming, torball, football 5, golf, showdown, golf, powerlifting, skiing, riding ... IBSA (International Blind Sport Federation) is an international sports organization that takes care of sports of persons with VI and is a member of the IPC (International Paralympic Committee). Competitions involving people with VI include: Paralympic Games, IBSA Games, world, continental, regional and national championships, as well as many international and national tournaments.
Based on the analysis of literature, comparison, induction, deduction was conducted to study the essence of the notion “physical culture”. It is shown that in some countries the notion “physical culture” is an umbrella for the study of physical perfection of man, but in many countries generic are other concepts. Even those authors who study the theory and methodology of physical culture, not always involved in the definition of “physical culture”. Evaluation study of the concepts as species for the theory of common culture and generic for the theory of physical culture has identified the need to develop the basic concepts of “physical culture”. The diversity of the content of the physical activities required the development of special formulas for the definition of “physical culture”. The study formulated and basic concept of “physical culture”, suitable for professional training, as well as the definition of the concept for level of students in secondary schools and higher – level researchers in the field of theory and methodology of physical perfection.
The explosion of information and the development of information and communication technologies contribute to serious worldwide problems – sedentary life styles and physical inactivity of people, all with related health, economic and social consequences. International organizations are actively addressing these current problems of the world. Good example of successful cooperation between international bodies is ICSSPE’s International Committee of Sport Pedagogy (ICSP) and its participation on international projects: “International Position Statement on Physical Education”, “Benchmarks for Physical Education”, “Designed to Move”, “Global Voices on Quality of Physical Education and Sport”, “International Charter of Physical Education, Physical Activities and Sport”, “Quality Physical Education Guidelines for Policy Makers”, “Madagascar project”
Obrad Zlatić, Slađana Mijatović, Vladan Vukašinović and Violeta Šiljak
Citizens of Uzice received a high school in 1839 for the first time by moving the semi-grammar school from Cacak. After three years, in 1842, the semi-grammar school moved from Užice to Čačak. Twenty-three years have passed until the reopening of the semi-grammar school in Uzice. With minor interruptions in work, caused primarily by war conflicts, the School worked until the beginning of the First World War in 1914.
This research sought to learn about the realization of physical education in Uzice High School since its foundation until the beginning of the First World War. The aim of the research was to find out the time of introduction of physical education in Uzice Gymnasium and its realization in that period, in all its important elements (teaching program and its performance, teachers, material resources, equipment). In this research, a historical method was used.
Teaching of physical education (body-education, guided tutoring and gymnastics) in Uzice High School was not realized in the period from 1839 to 1878.
The first data relating to the attempt to introduce physical education in the Gymnasium of Uzice dated back to 1874. In school year of 1878/79 In the course of the year, the teaching of physical education began within the curriculum, which, at the beginning of the school year was reviewed and adopted by the school's professor council.
By bringing and adopting a curriculum for gymnastics and military exercises from 1882 to 1990, the realization of teaching has characteristics of militarized training. After 1890, there was a period in which there was no teaching of physical education.
With the opening of the newly built building of Gymnasium in 1893, the conditions for a better implementation of the curricula of physical education, which were prescribed by the Ministry of Education, were met.
When Josif Jehlichka came to Gymnasium in Uzice to the invitation of the Ministry of Education of the Kingdom of Serbia, in 1911, as a teacher of gymnastics, a significant rise in the realization of the teaching of physical education in Uzice High School was made.
Petar D. Pavlović, Kristina M. Pantelić Babić, Nenad Živanović and Danilo Pavlović
Serbs who lived in America (more precisely, in the territory of United States) began to accept the very idea of Sokolism in mid-1907. One of first initiators of this idea was Danilo Radjevic, who worked and lived in Butte (Montana). In early 1909 began to appear the first initiatives for the establishment of Serbian Soko societies (SSS) in this territory. During 1909 two SSS were established, first one in Cincinnati (Ohio) and second one in Detroit (Michigan), and in the following year five more. During 1911 three societies were established, and in 1912 more than ten, among which Serbian Soko Society in Steubenville (Ohio). This paper deals with Serbian Sokol Society in Steubenville in order to determine when the Society was formed, who were its initiators, founders and members, which were its main activities and what kind of contribution the society had to development of Sokolism in the territory of America (United States).