P. Manoj Kumar, G. Gergely, D. K. Horváth and Z. Gácsi
The Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) solders with low Ag or Cu content have been identified as promising candidates to replace the traditional Sn–Pb solder. In this study, an extensive discussion was presented on two major area of mechanical properties and microstructural investigation of SAC305 and SAC405. In this chapter, we study the composition, mechanical properties of SAC solder alloys and microstructure were examined by optical microscope and SEM and mechanical properties such as tensile tests, hardness test and density test of the lead solder alloys were explored. SAC305 and SAC405 alloys with different Ag content and constant Cu content under investigation and compare the value of SAC305 and SAC405. From this investigation, it was reported that tensile strength is increased, with an increase of Ag content and hardness and density were also increases in the same manner.
R. Shvab, M. V. Sundaram, H. Karlsson, D. Chasoglou, S. Berg, E. Hryha and L. Nyborg
Increasing the application area of powder metallurgy (PM) steels for manufacturing of high-performance structural components results in material saving, reduction in energy consumption, etc. In this study, feasibility of the manufacturing of valve bridge component for heavy duty engine utilizing lean alloyed powders and novel vacuum sintering approach, followed by low pressure carburizing, is studied. Three low alloyed steel powders were processed by conventional uniaxial pressing and sintering at 1120 and 1250°C in industrial vacuum furnace. The components were tested under high cycle fatigue testing, simulating real conditions of operation. Fatigue properties did not show significant dependence on the sintering temperature and were comparable to currently used reference cast material. Fracture surfaces of broken samples were analyzed to detect crack initiations and fracture mechanisms as well as quality of sintering. Results showed preferentially ductile failure, well developed sintering necks and clean pore surfaces, indicating good sintering. Tested material in combination with novel vacuum sintering process show to be an attractive alternative for manufacturing of this type of components for heavy duty engine applications.
V. Vassileva, H. Danninger, S. Strobl, Ch. Gierl-Mayer, R. de Oro Calderon and H. Hutter
Boron has been known to activate densification during sintering of ferrous powder compacts, though with risk of embrittlement. In the present study, specimens Fe-B and Fe-C-B prepared from standard atomized iron powder with addition of ferroboron Fe-21%B were sintered in different atmospheres, and the resulting microstructures and properties were studied. It showed that the activating effect of boron is observed during sintering in argon and in hydrogen while sintering in N2 containing atmospheres results in rapid deactivation of boron, through formation of stable BN. In hydrogen atmosphere, surface deboronizing was observed to considerable depth. Ar is chemically inert, but Ar trapped inside closed pores tends to inhibit further densification. The impact energy data indicated that the embrittling effect of boron is enhanced significantly by presence of carbon. In the fracture surfaces, transgranular cleavage fracture can be observed both at very low and high impact energy values.
S. Tesfaye Mekonone, I. Cristofolini, W. Pahl and A. Molinari
Carburizing increases the contact fatigue resistance of sintered steels, but the surface hardening may result the formation of surface brittle cracks due to the combined effect of high hardness and porosity. The effect of carburizing on the embrittlement of the case of a 7.3 g/cm3 1.5%Mo - 0.25%C sintered steel was studied. The phenomenon was analyzed theoretically and verified by experiments. The resistance of the carburized steel to surface brittle cracking increases with the load bearing surface and the decrease of the maximum pore size, of the surface microhardness and the friction coefficient. The theoretical analysis was implemented in a design procedure for parts subject to contact stresses.
The article deals with the effect of porosity on the contact fatigue of sintered material type Astaloy CrL with 0.3 and 0.4% C. Sets of samples were used with densities beginning from the value of 7000 kg.m−3 to the value of almost 7859 kg.m−3 which represents almost zero porosity (compact material). It has been found out that the increase of compacting pressure applied simultaneously with temperature results in the reduction of porosity from the value of 9.10% to 0.0005% and increase in hardness from 145 to 193 HV10, depending on the carbon content. Logically there is also an increase in the fatigue life by the contact fatigue tests for the value of 50×106 cycles from the value of 900 MPa to 1150 MPa for samples with 0.3% of C and from 900 MPa to 1300 MPa for samples with 0.4% C. These investigations were also carried out in the past, but to achieve the reduction of porosity, different technonologies were used at each level such as double pressing, hot pressing, saturation, hot forging, etc. In this case, the single technology of “spark plasma sintering” making use of compacting at high temperatures is capable to continuously reduce porosity to zero.
M. Tenerowicz-Zaba, M. Kupkova, M. Kabatova, E. Dudrova, M. Dzupon and M. Sulowski
The aim of the study was to investigate Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of 1-3%Mn steels and compare the resultant microstructures, strengths and failure mechanisms with those of conventionally sintered materials. SPS was performed in a vacuum of 5 Pa at 1000°C for 15min under a uniaxial pressure of 20 MPa. The heating rate of 100°C/min was applied. For conventional processing, mixtures of powders were prepared in a Turbula mixer for 30 minutes. Samples were single pressed at 660 MPa, according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sintering of compacts was carried out in a laboratory tube furnace at 1120°C and 1250°C for 60 minutes in a mixture of 95%N2-5%H2. Heating and cooling rates were 75C°/min and 60°C/min, respectively. The density of SPS samples was higher (up to 7.37 g/cm3) than those after conventional sintering (up to 6.7 g/cm3). Yield strengths of SPS samples were in the range 920-1220 MPa, compared to the maximum of 602 MPa for conventionally sintered Fe-3%Mn-0.8%C. Transverse rupture strengths were the same for this alloy, 1234 MPa, but reached 1473 MPa for SPS 2Mn variant. Interfaces in SPS samples were significantly less contaminated with oxides, which is the result of a more favorable microclimate and pressure acting during SPS. These preliminary results indicate that further research on the SPS of Mn steels is warranted.
M. Vattur Sundaram, R. Shvab, S. Millot, E. Hryha and L. Nyborg
In order to be cost effective and to meet increasing performance demands, powder metallurgy steel components require continuous improvement in terms of materials and process development. This study demonstrates the feasibility of manufacturing structural components using two different alloys systems, i.e. lean Cr-prealloyed and diffusion bonded water atomised powders with different processing conditions. The components were sintered at two different temperatures, i.e. 1120 and 1250 °C for 30 minutes in three different atmospheres: vacuum, N2- 10%H2 atmosphere as well as lean N2-5%H2-0.5%CO-(0.1-0.4)%CH4 sintering atmosphere. Components after sintering were further processed by either low pressure carburizing, sinterhardening or case hardening. All trials were performed in the industrial furnaces to simulate the actual production of the components. Microstructure, fractography, apparent and micro hardness analyses were performed close to the surface and in the middle of the sample to characterize the degree of sintering (temperature and atmosphere) and the effect of heat treatment. In all cases, components possess mostly martensitic microstructure with a few bainitic regions. The fracture surface shows well developed sinter necks. Inter- and trans-granular ductile and cleavage fracture modes are dominant and their fraction is determined by the alloy and processing route.
The effect of ball milling powder mixtures of Höganäs pre-alloyed iron Astaloy CrM, low-carbon ferromanganese Elkem, elemental electrolytic Cu and C-UF graphite on the sintered structure and mechanical properties was evaluated. The mixing was conducted using Turbula mixer for 30 minutes and CDI-EM60 frequency inverter for 1 and 2 hours. Milling was performed on 150 g mixtures with (in weight %) CrM + 1% Mn, CrM + 2% Mn, CrM + 1% Mn + 1% Cu and CrM + 2% Mn + 1% Cu, all with 0.6%C. The green compacts were single pressed at 660 MPa according to PN-EN ISO 2740. Sintering was carried out in a laboratory horizontal furnace Carbolite STF 15/450 at 1250°C for 60 minutes in 5%H2 – 95%N2 atmosphere with a heating rate of 75°C/min, followed by sintering hardening at 60°C/min cooling rate. All the steels were characterized by martensitic structures. Mechanical testing revealed that steels based on milled powders have slightly higher mechanical properties compared to those only mixed and sintered. The best combination of mechanical properties, for ball milled CrM + 1% Mn + 1% Cu was UTS 1046 MPa, TRS 1336 MPa and A 1.94%.
The effect of heat treatment on density, hardness, microstructure and tensile properties of Fe-0.85Mo-1.3Mn-0.6C sintered steel were investigated. Pre-alloyed Astaloy 85Mo, ferromanganese and UF4 graphite powders were mixed for 60 minutes in a Turbula mixer and then pressed in single-action die at 660MPa to produce green compacts (according to PN EN ISO 2740).The compacts were sintered in a specially designed semi-closed container at 1120 or 1250°C for 60 minutes in N2. The chemical composition of the sintering atmosphere was modified by adding getter and/or activator into the container. Two different types of heat treatment in nitrogen were carried out: sinteraustempering at 525°C for 60 minutes; and sinterhardening with additional tempering at 200°C for 60 minutes. The slightly better combination of strength and plasticity of steel for both sintering temperatures were achieved after sinterhardening+tempering variant. Average values of 0.2% offset yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and elongation after sintering in 1250°C, were 415MPa, 700MPa, and 2.0%, respectively.