Browse

11 - 20 of 466 items :

  • Hygiene and Environmental Medicine x
Clear All
Concentrations of selected metals (NA, K, CA, MG, FE, CU, ZN, AL, NI, PB, CD) in coffee

Abstract

Introduction

The health benefits and detrimental effects of coffee consumption may be linked to chemical compounds contained in coffee beans. The aim of our study was to evaluate the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in green and roasted samples of coffee beans purchased in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to determine the potential health implications at current consumption level.

Methods

The concentrations were determined using a microwave high-pressure mineralization and atomic absorption spectrometer that measures total metal (ionic and non-ionic) content.

Results

The average metal concentrations (μg element/g coffee) in the green coffee beans were; Na: 18.6, K: 19898, Ca: 789, Mg: 1758, Fe: 60, Cu: 14, Zn: 3.6, Al: 4.2, Ni: 0.415, Pb: 0.076, and Cd: 0.015, while, in the roasted; Na: 23, K: 23817, Ca: 869, Mg: 1992, Fe: 41.1, Cu: 11.4, Zn: 5.41, Al: 4.19, Ni: 0.88, Pb: 0.0169, and Cd: 0.0140.

Conclusion

The level of investigated metals at the present level of consumption of coffee in Bosnia falls within the limits recommended as safe for health.

Open access
Hospital volunteering experiences suggest that new policies are needed to promote their integration in daily care: Findings from a qualitative study

Abstract

Objective

To explore Hospital Volunteers’ (HVs) motivations and experiences, as well as the strategies they adopt to overcome challenging situations during volunteering and the needs they perceive.

Methods

Eleven Italian HVs were purposively approached between January and July 2016, using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the descriptive phenomenological approach.

Results

Hospital volunteering emerged as a complex experience characterised by five themes: (a) becoming a volunteer; (b) developing skills; (c) experiencing conflicting emotions; (d) overcoming role difficulties by enacting different resources and strategies; and (e) addressing emerging needs.

Conclusions

According to the findings, hospital policies aimed at promoting volunteer integration in daily care are needed and should be based on (a) a shared vision between the hospital and the volunteer associations regarding the HVs’ role and skills; (b) the development of integrated models of care combining different workforces (i.e. professionals and volunteer staff); (c) appropriate training of HVs at baseline; (d) individualised continuous education pathways aimed at supporting HVs both emotionally and in the development of the required skills; and (e) tailored education that is directed to health-care staff aimed at helping them to value the service provided by HVs.

Open access
Perceived work ability index of public service employees in relation to ageing and gender: A comparison in three European countries

Abstract

Background

Increasing longevity raised the prospect of a workplace for ageing workers. Previous studies reveal that work ability decreases with age, even among the healthy, and decreased significantly with age among women. The aim of the study is to examine the perception of work ability of public sector employees aged 55 years and older and gender differences in three European countries.

Methods

A prospective longitudinal study design and standardized “Work Ability Index” (WAI) were used. This study analysed the relationship between ageing, gender, and perceived work ability among 1653 employees aged 45.06±10.90 years (562 men and 1091 women) from Spain, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Monte Negro. The research was conducted in 2018.

Results

Older employees had a better WAI than their younger colleagues (P<0.001). The lowest prevalence rate 20% of excellent WAI was between 35 and 44 years of age. The reduction of WAI in Bosnia and Herzegovina was huge 68%, compared with 30% in Monte Negro (more than 2 times) and 14% in Spain (almost 5 times more).

Conclusion

Gender and age was not protector and predictor of excellent or reduced work ability. Work ability did not decrease with age among women and men, public sector employees. Work ability depends of health and safety, promotion and preventive activities at the workplace.

Open access
Predictive factors for live birth in autologous in vitro fertilization cycles in women aged 40 years and older

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to determine predictive factors for live birth after in vitro fertilization with autologous oocytes in women ≥40 years of age.

Methods

Authors conducted a retrospective analysis of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles performed at the Department of Reproductive Medicine and Gynecologic Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Maribor, Slovenia between January 2006 and December 2015 in women aged 40 or more. The characteristics of patients and cycles were compared regarding live birth as the final outcome.

Results

A total of 1920 IVF/ICSI cycles with egg retrieval in women ≥40 years of age were performed leading to 1591 embryo transfers. The live birth rate per embryo transfer was 17.3% at 40, 11.6% at 41, 8.2% at 42, 7.9% at 43, 1.9% at 44 and 0.0% at ≥45 years of age. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that besides women’s age (OR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.55–0.78), the number of previous cycles (OR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.82–0.95), number of good quality embryos on day 2 (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.36), number of embryos transferred (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.19–2.07) and day 5 embryo transfer (OR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.37–3.55) were also independent prognostic factors for live birth.

Conclusions

The chance of in vitro fertilization success in women ≥40 years of age should not be estimated only on the woman’s age, but also on other predictive factors: number of previous cycles, number of good quality embryos on day 2, number of transferred embryos and blastocyst embry transfer.

Open access
Reluctance and willingness for organ donation after death among the Slovene general population

Abstract

Introduction

The paper presents the findings of the first large-scale survey on post-mortem organ donation among the general Slovenian population. It focuses on the reported donation willingness, the barriers to joining the register of organ donors and the position towards consent to donate organs of deceased relatives.

Methods

A face-to-face survey was conducted on a probability sample of 1,076 Slovenian residents between October and December 2017. The performed analyses included estimations of means and proportions for target variables, an evaluation of between-group differences and a partial proportional odds model to study the relations between organ donation willingness and socio-demographic characteristics.

Results

The mean reported willingness to donate one’s own organs after death was 3.77 on a 5-point scale, with less than a third of respondents claiming to be certainly willing. Only 6% of those at least tentatively willing to donate organs were certain to join the register of organ donors in the future. The most frequently reported barriers to registration were unfamiliarity with the procedure and a lack of considering it beforehand. The reported willingness to donate organs of a deceased relative strongly depended on the knowledge of the relative’s wishes, yet 80% of the respondents did not discuss their wishes with any family members.

Conclusions

The findings confirm the gap between the reported donation willingness and joining the register of donors. Future post-mortem organ donation strategies need to consider socio-demographic and attitudinal factors of donation willingness and help stimulate the communication about organ donation wishes between family members.

Open access
Validation of the Slovenian version of the low anterior resection syndrome score for rectal cancer patients after surgery

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to translate the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score into Slovenian and to test its validity on Slovenian patients who underwent low anterior rectal resection.

Methods

The LARS score was translated from English into Slovenian and then back-translated following international recommendations. The Slovenian version of the LARS questionnaire was completed by patients who underwent low anterior rectal resection between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010 at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. An anchor question assessing the impact of bowel function on lifestyle was included. To assess test-retest reliability, some of the patients answered the LARS score questionnaire twice.

Results

A total of 100 patients (66.7%) of the 150 patients who were contacted for participation, were included in the final analysis. A total of 58 patients reported major LARS score. The LARS score was able to discriminate between patients who received radiotherapy and those who did not (p<0.001), and between total and partial mesorectal excision (p<0.001). Age was not associated with a greater LARS score (p=0.975). There was a perfect fit between the QoL category question and the LARS score in 66.0% of cases and a moderate fit was found in 24.0% of the cases, showing good convergent validity. Test-retest reliability of 51 patients showed a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.86.

Conclusions

The Slovenian translation of the LARS score is a valid tool for measuring LARS.

Open access
A cross-sectional study among healthcare and non-healthcare students in slovenia and croatia about do-not resuscitate decision-making

Abstract

Objective

To survey university students on their views concerning the respect for autonomy of patients and the best interest of patients in relation to the withholding of resuscitation.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey among university students of medicine, nursing, philosophy, law and theology of the first and the final study years at the University of Ljubljana and the University of Zagreb was conducted during the academic year of 2016/2017. A questionnaire constructed by Janiver et al. presenting clinical case vignettes was used.

Results

The survey response rates for students in Ljubljana and Zagreb were 45.4% (512 students) and 37.9% (812 students), respectively. The results of our research show statistically significant differences in do-not resuscitate decisions in different cases between medical and non-medical students in both countries. Male and religious students in both countries have lower odds of respecting relatives’ wishes for the withholding of resuscitation (odds ratio 0.49–0.54; 95% confidence interval). All students agreed that they would first resuscitate children if they had to prioritize among patients.

Conclusions

Our study clearly shows that gender, religious beliefs, and type of study are important factors associated with the decisions pertaining to the respect for autonomy, patient’s best interest, and initiation or withholding of resuscitation.

Open access
Exposure to mental load and psychosocial risks in kindergarten teachers

Abstract

Introduction

Published research studies in Central Europe have been mostly oriented toward occupational stress among schoolteachers. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of occupational stress in kindergarten teachers and to specify psychosocial risks associated with their work.

Methods

The study was conducted by using a Meister questionnaire and a Psychosocial risk questionnaire. The data collection was obtained from kindergarten teachers in 2017. The survey link with request was sent to participants via email. A total 287 questionnaires from 67 kindergarten schools were collected.

Results

192 (66.9%) teachers perceived their work as mentally burdensome. Teachers who perceived their work as mentally non-burdening were more likely to report autonomy in their work (p=0.001), fair performance evaluation (p=0.010), sufficient family time (p=0.005), a health-protected workplace (p=0.000) and absence of violence and bullying (p=0.042). Teachers with a university degree perceiving work as mentally burdensome reported that their work was not adequately assessed (p=0.034). Teachers over 45 years of age with school practice of over 20 years reported injustice in evaluating work performance against younger colleagues (p=0.000).

Conclusion

Kindergarten teachers reported overloading, time pressure, and high responsibility, but considered their work interesting. However, changing the way teachers work in schools can reduce teacher resignation and improve teachers’ well-being.

Open access
Frequency of complete and removable partial denture treatment in the primary health centres in three different regions of Kosovo from 2002 to 2013

Abstract

Introduction

Edentulism and prosthodontic care are very common, especially in the elderly. The study investigated the treatment with complete dentures (CDs) and acrylic removable partial dentures (ARPDs) among people receiving new prosthodontic treatment in the Primary Health Centres of the three regions in Kosovo from 2002 to 2013.

Methods

The data on ARPDs delivery and CDs delivery was obtained from the archives of primary health centres from three Kosovo regions (Prizren, Peje, Ferizaj) from 2002 to 2013. The data was analysed concerning year of treatment, type of dentures, jaw, age, gender and urban or rural origin of the patients. The trend of treatment was determined, and the binomial logistic regression model was used for predicting odds of ARPD versus CD treatment by year of treatment and patient characteristics.

Results

From 2002 to 2013, 9,478 patients received 11,655 CDs and 4,401 ARPDs. Delivery of CDs significantly increased by 57.45 dentures per year (R2=0.609) and delivery of ARPDs by 30.39 dentures per year (R2=0.569). Each year the odds for ARPD versus CD increased by 4.2% (95% CI: 3.0%–5.4%). Younger patients have higher odds for ARPD rather than CD and odds for ARPD are decreasing as the age of patients rises. The gender, residence, and jaw all had a significant impact on prosthodontic treatment too.

Conclusions

In Primary Health Centres of Kosovo, there is a trend for higher frequencies of both dentures (more obvious for ARPD), and the frequency is highly dependent on the age of patients.

Open access
Impact of adverse childhood experiences on alcohol use in emerging adults in Montenegro and Romania

Abstract

Background

Aiming at generating evidence for formulating targeted and cost-effective public health interventions for the effective control of alcohol use (AU) in emerging adults in South Eastern Europe. The study’s objective was to assess if alcohol users experience adverse childhood experiences (ACE) more often than non-users, and to identify which ACE victims are the most vulnerable to AU.

Methods

The data was collected in 2010–2012 in two cross-sectional studies conducted in university settings in Montenegro and Romania (overall response rate 89.1%). In the present study, 3,283 students were included. The international ACE Study Questionnaires were used as a base for study instruments for collecting information on ACEs, health behaviours, and socio-economic factors. The association between AU and individual ACEs, adjusted to background factors, was assessed by using logistic regression.

Results

From the child maltreatment group, three ACEs were included in the final model as statistically significantly associated with AU, all of them from physical neglect/abuse types: frequently being hit so hard to have marks or being injured (OR=1.68; p=0.012), frequently being spanked (OR=1.38; p=0.012), and frequently having no person to take to the doctor if necessary (OR=0.58; p=0.031). From the household dysfunction group, two ACEs were included in the final model: exposure to mental health problems in the household (OR=2.85; p<0.001), and living with a problematic drinker/alcoholic (OR=1.51; p=0.019).

Conclusions

The effect of exposure to ACEs on AU persists into emerging adulthood. This should be considered when developing cost-effective response to AU burden through targeted interventions, in particular in settings with scarce resources.

Open access