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The Relationship Between Swimming Performance and Time Parameters of the Start and Turn

Summary

The start and the turn are factors that influence performance in different swimming disciplines. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of selected time parameters of the start and the turn with sport performance of 100 m and 1 500 m freestyle finalists in the Olympic Games 2016. Monitored parameters of the start were the start reaction, time under water after the start, and time at a distance of 15 m after the start. The monitored parameters of the turn were the time of 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn, the time under water after the turn, and time reached at a distance of 15 m after the turn. There was any significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed start indicators. The significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed turn indicators was time 5 m before the turn r = 0.952 (p = 0.000); the duration of the turn r = 0.830 (p = 0.011); time at a distance of 15 m after the turn r = 0.886 (p = 0.003). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed start indicators was time under water after the start r = −0.714 (p = 0.047). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed turn indicators was the duration of the turn was r = 0.905 (p = 0.002). The results point out the existing relations between 100 m freestyle and time under water after start and duration of the turn. And for 1 500 m existing relations with time 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn and time at a distance of 15 m after the turn. Therefore, our recommendations for sports practice include development of speed, power and coordination skills with technical execution of the start and the turn into regular swimming training.

Open access
The Relationship Between the Models of Sport Commitment and Self-Determination among Adolescent Athletes

Summary

This study examined the relationship between the Sport Commitment Model and the Self-Determination Theory. The participants were 214 adolescent athletes who completed the Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and the Hungarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Several commitment sources predicted SMS scores as well. Amotivation was predicted by the obligatory reason for commitment such as Personal Investment-Loss and Other Priorities. External Regulation was predicted by Social factors of commitment. Introjected Regulation was determined by Desire to Excel-Mastery and Personal Investment-Loss. Identified Regulation was explained by Desire to Excel-Mastery, Valuable Opportunities, and Personal Investment-Loss. Integrated Regulation was explained with Valuable Opportunities, Desire to Excel-Mastery, Personal Investment-Loss and Social Support-Informal. The Intrinsic Motivation subscale was significantly predicted by Desire to Excel-Mastery, Personal Investment-Loss, Sport Enjoyment and Social Support-Informal. As we see the types of commitment showed a clear association with SMS, however the commitment sources showed a complex relationship with self-determination, thus it is hard to separate them on the Self-determination continuum.

Open access
Spinal Mobility in Women with Sedentary Job

Summary

The aim of the paper is to provide insight into the spine mobility of a selected group of women. The task was to diagnose and evaluate spinal mobility in women aged 25 to 30, who are dominated by a sedentary way in workplace but also outside the work environment. Spinalmouse® technology was used for diagnostic purposes, which records the shape and mobility of the spine in the sagittal and frontal plane. Tests were performed in the sagittal and frontal plane of the baseline. The sm® software evaluated the measured data immediately. Based on the results of the measurements, we found different curves in specific spine sectors outside the standards. Changes in spine movement range were also noted. The research continues.

Open access
Swimming Performance to 25 Meters Backstroke Depends on Selected Factors of Explosive Strength of Lower Limbs

Summary

The aim of our work was to analyze the partial shares of selected factors of explosive strength of lower limbs on the overall explanation of swimming performance to the 25 meters backstroke. 29 students of Physical Education took part in our research and completed 6 tests. These tests were realized on a dry-land and in the water and they consisted of swimming performance to 25 meters backstroke, swimming start speed to 4 meters, vertical jump with and without arm-swing, maximum and average velocity of take-off performance on dry land under the backstroke start conditions. The obtained data are described by descriptive statistics and all parameters were entered to the correlation analysis for their dependence evaluation. By the analysis, we found that all tests significantly correlated with each other (p < 0.01; p < 0.05) except for the start to 4 meters test and Tendo velocity average test. For the evaluation of factors that determine the swimming performance to 25 meters backstroke, we use the regression analysis of parameters where the regression model was reflected as statistically significant (R2 = 0.479 %; SEE = 3.396 %). Partial shares of individual tests, except for tests of maximal and average velocity on a dryland, showed up as statistically significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.01), with the highest share of swimming start to 4 meters performance (p < 0.01; r = 0.686). We used the regression step analysis in which we decrease the indicators to the three main factors of the strength of lower limbs model, which influence the swimming performance to the 25 meters backstroke significantly with large effect (R2 = 0.4787 %; f2 = 0.9183; F = 7.652; p < 0.01). Again, the highest and statistically significant (p < 0.01) share on the explanation of swimming performance had the start to 4 meters with 43.33 % percentage share. Besides the swimming start, the Countermovement Jump test was statistically significant too (p < 0.05) and statistically insignificant was test of maximum velocity on a dry-land. By this study we can evaluate how individual factors of strength of lower limbs influence the swimming performance and for the future it is necessary to complete them with the other factors for the better creation of the appropriate swimming training program.

Open access
Algerian Sport High School as Comprehensive Approach for Improving Public Education System

Summary

In 2001 Algerian Governmental created Sport High School (HSA). Its main mission is education, training and development of young talents by providing all the conditions to serve their healthy sports path. Firstly, by intensifying their daily sports as school-based health education program designed to improve their physical status relates to their healthy lifestyle. Disclosed by evaluation tool design to detect their physical abilities as well as their longitudinal followings. Used in present as evaluation scale to inspect imprudence related to the objectives of Algerian public schools (HPA). For proposing this comparative study test 1 000 High School student, 800 boys and 200 girls for academic years 2017 – 2018. The evaluation focused on measuring anthropometric parameters - age, weight, height and BMI as well as physical qualities - speed (30 m), the explosive force vertical (VJ), explosive force of the arms (medicine ball throw 3 kg (MB), flexibility trunk (FT)), endurance abdominal muscles (maximum of <4 sit-ups > in one minute (EAM) and aerobic endurance (20m shuttle test (VO2max)). Controlled by rating scales produced by Iaiche Rezoug. Based on the scale provided by this latter, our results proclaims the generalization of perspectives implemented in Algerian Sport High School as school-based physical health education program designed to reduce the consequences of overweight on health-related to physical performance. Estimated by rating scales produced by Iaiche Rezoug, which could serve as a model database refining the impact of the two Algerian educational systems, as an approach suggesting a clear direction for the development of adequate programs for the larger populations of Algerian scholars.

Open access
Developing Expertise in Sport Coaching Through Engagement with Disability Programmes

Summary

Numerous academic and practitioner research has examined the role of Higher Education Institutions (HEI) in the development of sport coaches in the UK (e.g. Crisp 2018; Stoszkowski and Collins 2018). However, whilst most fields related to coach development have significant bodies of work underpinning them, there is a dearth of information related to best practice within the context of disability sport coaching. Given that both coach learning in the HEI context and disability sports coaching are significant areas worthy of further exploration, this work investigates how learning can be developed through disability sport coaching in the HEI context. The aims of this study were to gather the perceptions, thoughts, and experiences of ten student-coaches enrolled on an HEI coaching programme who were completing a year long placement module that included sessions for participants with disabilities. Data were collected through two focus group meetings with the student-coaches and the submission of learning journals. Inductive analysis showed that coaching disability groups facilitated learning through generating knowledge from practice through a process of reflection, higher order thinking, and meta-cognition. This suggests that using disability coaching can be a useful tool for HEIs to use in terms of challenging student-coach practice and education.

Open access
The Effect of Heavy Weight Training on Physiological Abilities of Soccer Players Under the Age 21 Years Old

Summary

The objective of the study is to design a specialized training program in modern weighting methods for under-21 soccer players to develop muscular strength and to identify the effect of the training program on weighting exercises on some physiological variables (some aerobic and anaerobic abilities such as VO2max heartbeat and backstage). Researchers in this study that weight training for soccer players will have a clear impact on both the development of muscle capacity and improve some functional abilities. The experimental method was used to design two samples, a experimental sample and a control sample of under-21 soccer players who were selected by a team of Mustaganem teams. Each sample consisted of 18 players. The experimental sample was applied to the weight and control program. For four months. The study showed that the experimental sample achieved a significant increase in muscle strength measurements as well as some physiological variables in all measured tests compared to the control sample. This is the result of the proposed training program applied to the experimental sample.

Open access
Intensity of Soccer Players’ Training Load in Small-Sided Games with Various Content Focus

Summary

The aim of this research was to make reference to the difference in heart rate values (HR) of soccer players in small-sided games (SSG) with various content focus. We assumed that the aim at the content in small-sided games would significantly affect the HR values of participating soccer players. The research group was comprised of players (n = 6) of the soccer club FK DAC 1904 Dunajská Streda (U15) at the age of 14 ± 0.7 years. The HR values were evaluated on the basis of collected data, which we obtained using sport testers and special software POLAR TEAM2. In order to find out the statistical significance of the difference in HR was used the One-Way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 %. We found out that by the change of the small-sided game’s content focus, the internal reaction of players’ organism to training load was at different level. In the SSG3, with the emphasis on the improvement of individual’s final offensive game activity – shooting, was recorded the highest achieved HRavg value of the monitored players (181.83 ±7.11 beats.min−1). This form of the SSG was the most intense. However, there were no significant differences in HR values among the individual forms of the SSG. Our recommendation is to employ in the systematic training process small forms of small-sided games with various content focus, because by the means of it we can adequately prepare the players for the match load itself.

Open access
The Ontogenetic Development Prerequisites of Physical Activities in the Aquatic Environment in Early Childhood

Summary

The text deals with neurophysiological and kinesiological developmental principles associated with the early development of young children as the fundamental prerequisites for physical education in the aquatic environment. Swimming in infancy and early childhood using the developmental principles and understanding of individual variability represent enormous potential to create a positive attitude of the child to exercise in aquatic environments. We believe that the experience with these basic tasks can play a key role in future exercise habits and swimming literacy of the individual. Parents attending infant swimming courses led by an instructor acquire practical skills and deeper insight into principles of their child's motor learning. All activities in the aquatic environment at an early age should allow transfer of child’s experiences to preswimming education and result in full swimming literacy.

Open access
Physiological Aspects and Injuries in Mixed Martial Arts

Summary

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) has become an independent sport discipline with its own distinctive aspects. It can no longer be perceived as before, as a compilation of other martial arts. MMA shows originality in training methods, health aspects, performance requirements or even moral-volitional qualities. The aim of the paper is to analyse the physiological aspects of MMA in both training and combat loads, to discuss the issue of injuries in MMA and to provide a comparison with other martial arts. Studies focusing directly on MMA wrestlers have been selected. These have included both amateur and professional athletes. The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Scholar were used as sources. MMA ranks among sports with high-intensity workload, wrestlers achieve high levels of lactate and other metabolic markers. They need above-average aerobic capacity and perform well in upper body strength tests. Injury rates in MMA do not differ significantly from those in professional-level martial arts. Most injuries are associated with lacerations on the head. The requirements of extensive workload during performance must be reflected in training. Encouragement of aerobic and anaerobic endurance abilities in conjunction with optimum strength training seems crucial. It is essential to include prophylaxis as regards head concussions and strive for maximum safety of the sportsman during combat. Further research is required to confirm some of the conclusions, the limitations of which are due to the number and quality of the selected studies.

Open access